Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects

PDF: 20180517-infinity-supercritical-extraction-review-cannabis-essential-oil

Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects

1) This study, quote – examined the effects of essential oil from legal … hemp variety on the nervous system in 5 healthy volunteers – unquote.

2) Cannabis sativa L. has long been cultivated for industrial purposes but has recently become an additive, quote – in the cosmetics industry, as flavorings for beverages…, and in medicine – unquote.

3) Quote – hemp essential oil is a complex mixture of many volatile compounds, mainly monoterpenes,

sesquiterpenes, and other terpenoid-like substances. The main chemical components are myrcene, B-caryophyllene, limonene, a-pinene, B-pinene, terpinolene, and a-humulene – unquote.

4) Many of these constituents possess individual characteristics generally accepted to include: quote – antidepressant, relaxant, anxiolytic, sedative, antimicrobial, and antioxidant – unquote effects.

5) Previous studies have indicated that B-caryophyllene, the 2nd most abundant constituent of Cannabis Essential Oil (CEO), quote – may be useful in treating anxiety and depression – unquote.

6) The primary constituent in CEO is myrcene. Myrcene along with other monoterpenes constitute 57.2 percent of the essential oil.

7) This test offered a limited pool of subjects, employing five volunteers, but offered multiple suggestive results that indicate that further investigation would be warranted.

8) This trial asked subjects to first inhale sweet almond oil (SAO) as a control. Before, during, and after inhalation the subjects were monitored to collect physiological data as well as asked to describe their emotional and physical states. The same was then performed before, during, and after inhalation of CEO.

9) Subject data collected included: quote – brain wave activity and ANS parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and skin temperature, as well as the assessment of mood states – unquote.

10) The CEO used in this experiment was obtained through steam distillation which yielded 11 percent v/w.

11) The inhalation of each essential oil was performed by placing one milliliter of oil on gauze and subjects were to inhale the aromatics, quote – simultaneously with both nostrils – unquote.

12) Results of this study indicated that, quote – inhalation of CEO was correlated with changes in ANS parameters and skin temperature significantly increased – unquote.

13) Sixty percent of subjects showed an increase in heart rate while 80% showed a decrease in diastolic blood pressure during CEO exposure, but these results are only suggestive as they were not statistically significant.

14) Regarding the mood state investigation, quote – all subjects found the CEO pleasant- unquote. Collectively, subjects indicated feeling, quote – more calm, relaxed, and energetic.

15) While anecdotal and statistically insignificant, it is interesting to note that one study participant, who entered complaining of a headache, reported the absence of a headache during exposure to CEO.

16) Much of these observations may be explained by the exposure to myrcene, which has been shown in previous research to, quote – have a sedative, analgesic, and relaxing activity – unquote.

17) Observation of subject brainwaves before, during, and after CEO exposure suggested an impact similar to meditation.

18) The small study population used in this investigation limits the ability to draw broad conclusions, but it does suggest that further investigation would be valuable to better understand the effect Cannabis Essential Oil can offer physiologically and emotionally.

Publication: “Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects.”  Nadia Gulluni, Tania Re, Idalba Loiacono, Giovanni Lanzo, Luigi Gori, Claudio Macchi, Francesco Epifani, Nicola Bragazzi, and Fabio Firenzuoli. PDF. 2018.

Review by: SP

Evaluation of SDR Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals

Evaluation of Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals

20180514-infinity-supercritical-extraction-review-sdr-eval

Review

Evaluation of Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals

 

1) This article describes a set of experiments that were performed to investigate the viability of implementing a Spinning Disk Reactor (SDR) to speed the production of pharmaceutical constituents.

2) It has been suggested that the SDR offers distinct advantages over the traditional Stirred Tank method of processing technology which is quote – simply scaled-up versions of the beaker in which the process was originally devised – unquote.

3) One downside of the Stirred Tank methodology is that the surface-to-volume ratio decreases as the system is scaled up. This induces inefficiencies that are not present in the beaker-scale process these systems are designed around. The largescale vessels may inhibit the naturally fast reaction times inherent in the composition.

4) For SDR viable reactions, quote – fluid residence times…are in the range of 1-5s compared with a few hours in a stirred vessel – unquote, offering the potential for significant process time reduction.

5) The greater mixing intensity offered by the SDR also has the potential to improve reactant concentration profiles as well as yield better product particle size selectivity.

6) An SDR in its basic sense is a horizontal rotating disk. The reactants in a desired chemical reaction are poured into a small well in the center of the top side of the disk. Forces created by the spinning nature of the disk move the reactants outwards in a thin film towards the perimeter of the disk, inducing significant shear forces along the way. These shear forces are what is primarily responsible for the great mixing intensity offered by the SDR.

7) SDR architecture also allows for precise temperature control. The housing walls can be heated or cooled along with the disk. The disk has fluid channels machined in which direct heat transfer fluid from the periphery of the disk towards the center and back out the shaft.

8) This heat transfer fluid path creates a counter current flow with regard to the thin film of reactants offering highly efficient and selectable temperature environment.

9) The trial investigated 6 types of reactions: (1) phase-transfer Darzen’s process (2) crystallization study (3) Knoevenagel reaction (4) condensation process (5) elimination reaction (6) exothermic condensation.

10) Due to the short residence times of 1-5 seconds, reaction types (3)-(5) were found to be not viable using the SDR. These reaction types, quote – displayed low conversions in the range of 0 percent to 10 percent – unquote, due to their low intrinsic reaction speed.

11) Reaction type (6) was found to be non-viable due to product selectivity which was, quote – significantly lower than that in the batch process – unquote.

12) Reaction types (1) and (2) were used to further investigate the impact of disk rotational speed, disk texture, and process temperatures on overall process efficiency.

13) While attempting to test different process temperatures it was necessary to use a heat transfer fluid other than water to achieve sub zero C cooling. In this case, Therminol 59 and Dowcal 10 were tested as possible options.

14) Heat transfer fluid testing indicated that not only the fluid, but also the disk material itself (316 SS or Naval Brass) had a significant impact on the heat transfer capability of the system.

15) This article concludes that SDR technology is viable and advantageous for certain chemical reaction processes.

16) Reactions quote – with species half-lives up to 5s, can be performed much more effectively in an SDR than in a stirred vessel – unquote, with up to a 99.9% reduction in process time.

17) It was also observed that higher rotational speeds generated better mixing and shorter residence times.

18) The authors calculate that the 15cm SDR, bench-top scale, that was constructed and used for their trails had the throughput capacity to generate quote – 8 ton of product per year – unquote.

19) While not a universal fit, this trial strongly supports the further development of SDR processes in the production of pharmaceuticals and chemical in manufacturing.

Publication: Paul Oxley, Clemens Brechtelsbauer, Francois Ricard, Norman Lewis, and Colin Ramshaw,“Evaluation of Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals.” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000, 39, 2175-2182

Review by: SP

Making a Profit from Botanical Oil Extraction

PDF Download: 20170822-infinity-supercritical-co2-extraction-profit-review

Introduction: The market segment which is making money right now is oil extraction and concentrates. This might be cannabis oil (vape pens), hemp oil (CBDs), or in the nutraceuticals industry, phenols and metabolites. The later is mainly used in the supplement industry in tablet, capsule, and concentrate form (tincture – used to drop into tea, flavor drinks, etc.).

Oil extraction is a value-added segment of the industry, which is more profitable than cultivation, due to the limited number of extractors. Lots of cultivators and large supply, drive prices down. Limited extractors, and small supply, drive prices up.

sonic-extractor-hops-extract-20160707

Research: The best strategy is to research and study the area you want to focus on, and which industry and consumer to target. If you focus on a niche market, you will have better results, than if you do what everyone else does.

Branding: Having your own brand will identify your product with consistency. It allows the consumer to quickly chose your product, and refer your product to others. Word of mouth is sometimes the best advertising, and best of all it’s free.

Steps to Profit

 

Step 1: Identify your botanical, product, and market. What product do you want to sell, and who is going to buy it ?

Step 2: Identify attributes to your product, and benefits of the botanical. Choose a brand name.

Step 3: Establish a botanical supplier and purity. Have a certified lab test your botanical sample, and indicate pesticide free, and available oil. Negotiate your best price on the botanicals, and insist on regular sample testing, and tracking from growth, harvest, and final delivery.

Step 4: Flavinoids. Do you want your brand product to have flavor ? Botanicals are flavored by compounds called terpenes, which can be removed in the extraction process. They can even be removed, and replaced, with a different flavor (such as removing a hops taste or smell, with vanilla).

Step 5: Establish your market network. This may include direct-to-customer sales (via a website or sales agents), for non-regulated items Amazon, or through retail organizations like dispensaries.

Step 6: Source and assemble your extraction process, including the extraction equipment and any post-processing equipment needed to put the oil or concentrate into a consumer ready format (i.e. vape pens, tincture, etc.). Get competitive quotes on equipment, and go see it in operation before you buy.

Step 7: Develop a comprehensive website, which includes ordering direct, publications on the product, including any scientific research. For fast set-up, use WordPress.

Step 8: Test run your production line, and provide free samples for a limited time.

Step 9: Price your product. A brand name will command a higher price than a generic product. A niche market will also bring higher prices. Do you want a one-time sale, or offer a subscription ?

Step 10: Return on Investment feedback. Set a loop in the chain of supply and sales that allows you to capture and analyze metrics of the cost of goods versus your profit. Adjust your supplier price, and sale price accordingly.

Summary: While this is not a comprehensive list of everything that needs to be done, this will get you on the right path. These steps are merely guidelines, that can get you on the road to profit. You may need to re-number the list, according to your priority and product development. Redefining markets, customers, and profits is a dynamic strategy, since none of those factors are static. Over time, you need to constantly innovate new ways to market and develop your product for a savvy consumer.

20170428-10L-infinity-supercritical-green

Infinity Supercritical Botanical Oil Extraction Machine Which Uses CO2 as the Solvent

Flash Chromatography in Separation of THC, Terpenes, and Cannabinoids

PDF Download Link: 20170206-infinity-supercritical-flash-chromatography

Distillation is commonly used to purify and separate liquids. In the Cannabis industry, this is typically done by thin film or simple distillation, which uses heat to vaporize (evaporate) components, which are then condensed into fractions. Those fractions (THC, CBD, and Terpenes) can then be recombined for a recipe, or signature oil which can be used for concentrates (edibles) or vape pens. The new technique is called Flash Chromatography. http://www.biotage.com/news/effective-cannabinoid-purification-by-flash-chromatography

sonic-extractor-hops-extract-20160707

What is Flash Chromatography ?

Flash chromatography is a method to easily separate complex mixtures of compounds. It is based on column chromatography, which is a technique to purify (separate) compounds based on polarity and hydrophobicity. Separate occurs between differential partitioning between mobile and stationary phase. Introduce a liquid (Cannabis oil extract) and this separation technique will result in THC, Cannabinoids, and Terpenes.

http://static1.buchi.com/sites/default/files/microsite/downloads/Process_Flyer_A4_en_final.pdf

How Can I Use This In My Extraction Process ?

If you already have a CO2 extraction system, you will need to winterize your crude oil, then it will be ready for Flash Chromatography. As you identify the components to separate, the machine will automatically identify and then target components to separate into different vials. You can then recombine these separations in to recipes (for example, 10 percent THC, 85 percent CBD, and 5 percent terpenes). Using this method you can make custom vape pens, or concentrates.

Cannabis Oil Production For Profit

PDF Download: 20170302-infinity-supercritical-cannabis-oil-for-profit

Cannabis sweeps the nation

As the Cannabis revolution swings across America, states going legal are raking in huge tax revenue, and citizens are finally getting access to medical and recreational benefits of Cannabis production. The momentum is slowing moving towards oil (concentrates) which provide easier access to deliver the benefits via vape pens, edibles, and concentrates for medical purposes (CBD’s). With the political aspects aside, this review will list the aspects of producing Cannabis oil for profit.

20170217-infinity-supercritical-10-liter-front
Using a Infinity Supercritical 10L CO2 Extraction System is a good starting point for a oil refining business.

 

Supply versus demand

The mystique of the Cannabis industry has lots of people jumping into the mix, without knowledge of running a business, or the nuances of running a business to make money. A few are becoming millionaires, but most are breaking even, or losing money. Just look at the number of licenses issued in Colorado, and how supply has effected pricing. Business Insider reports that the price of wholesale marijuana has dropped by half in about a year.

http://www.businessinsider.com/marijuanas-getting-cheaper-in-colorado-2016-9

Plan a startup strategy

What differentiates those making money, and those losing money ?

Those who make money set out with a plan, a budget, funding, and a team to deliver that plan. If you set out with detailed goals and a strategy, you’re already ahead of most of the groups in the industry. Failure to plan, is a plan for failure.

You need to have a startup plan, growth, and exit plan. If you plan and play your cards right, you’ll end up with a successful business.

Information is paramount to profit

In the planning stages, it’s critical to become informed. Read, research, inquire, and educate yourself about what you are getting into.

Read: Study online information.

Research: Online studies, scientific research papers, pricing models and consumer demand.

Inquire: Existing successful operations, and those that are not, and why they are not.

Educate: Sometimes the key to success is a very fine line, stack the deck in your favor.

http://www.infinitysupercritical.com/publications.html

 

Determine your business path to success

Select the part of the industry, that interests you the most, and makes the most money.

While this may be easier said than done, select a industry segment that you will enjoy working in, and develop it.

If you are vertically integrated, and have lots of funding, you can run an entire operation from cultivation to retail sales. The savvy types will focus on one targeted segment and make money with that segment, then grow by acquisition.

 

Start with oil extraction

Who makes the most money in the oil industry ? When compared to the hydrocarbon oil industry, it is the refiners.

http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-gas-profits-20150722-story.html

In the Cannabis industry, the most value-added is extracting and refining the botanical oil.

http://blog.sfgate.com/smellthetruth/2015/01/12/is-cannabis-extraction-the-future-of-a-multi-billion-dollar-industry/

 

Why is Cannabis oil extraction potentially the most profitable and least vulnerable to industry pitfalls ?

While supply and demand will ultimately determine overall industry income, as a Cannabis oil refinery lab (including post processing), you have the flexibility to determine downstream products. With a extraction system, you can make live resin, vape pens, concentrates, shatter, etc. And like other industries, you can tailor the output according to the market demand. Cultivators and retails do not have such flexibility. The ability to morph according to customer demand is an important factor to profitability.

What is the best method of cultivation of Cannabis to make a methodical profit ?

The best profit model would be a indoor grow, with staggered starting and harvest cycles, on a weekly basis. This will not only utilize your energy, personnel, and extraction lab more efficiently, but also allows you to tailor downstream product offerings to consumer demand, while providing a fresh product at all times. While outdoor grows are great, they are only once a year. The stress at harvest season is tremendous, and all that supply drives prices down, at that time of year.

FogPonics is the best kept secret in the Cannabis industry

Developed by a LA entrepreneur, the vertical grow tower system provides a weekly harvest, optimizing energy, personnel, and production specifically targeting oil production. On a five week grow out cycle, FogPonics is designed for oil production with fast growth varieties like Cinderella.

 

Oil extraction and post production

As oil is extracted from botanicals, the end product is a substance commonly referred to as crude oil. While this material can be used for dabs, it is more likely to go into post processing for refining downstream into concentrates or other products. It is typical for a extraction system to have a complimentary post processing lab, to refine and separate the oil for consumer products.

 

Strategy for success

Determining your actual business model will depend on your goals and the market in your area, but we recommend the following:

1. Start a extraction facility with post-processing lab.

2. If supply is an issue, vertically integrate with a FogPonics vertical grow facility.

3. Tailor your output products to demand.

4. Start or acquire your own vape pen brand, or develop products with your concentrates.

ROI App: http://www.infinitysupercritical.com/roi.html

roi

Profiting from Botanical Oil Extraction

PDF Download: 20170822-infinity-supercritical-co2-extraction-profit-review

Introduction: The market segment which is making money right now is oil extraction and concentrates. This might be cannabis oil (vape pens), hemp oil (CBDs), or in the nutraceuticals industry, phenols and metabolites. The later is mainly used in the supplement industry in tablet, capsule, and concentrate form (tincture – used to drop into tea, flavor drinks, etc.).

Oil extraction is a value-added segment of the industry, which is more profitable than cultivation, due to the limited number of extractors. Lots of cultivators and large supply, drive prices down. Limited extractors, and small supply, drive prices up.

sonic-extractor-hops-extract-20160707

Research: The best strategy is to research and study the area you want to focus on, and which industry and consumer to target. If you focus on a niche market, you will have better results, than if you do what everyone else does.

Branding: Having your own brand will identify your product with consistency. It allows the consumer to quickly chose your product, and refer your product to others. Word of mouth is sometimes the best advertising, and best of all it’s free.

Steps to Profit

 

Step 1: Identify your botanical, product, and market. What product do you want to sell, and who is going to buy it ?

Step 2: Identify attributes to your product, and benefits of the botanical. Choose a brand name.

Step 3: Establish a botanical supplier and purity. Have a certified lab test your botanical sample, and indicate pesticide free, and available oil. Negotiate your best price on the botanicals, and insist on regular sample testing, and tracking from growth, harvest, and final delivery.

Step 4: Flavinoids. Do you want your brand product to have flavor ? Botanicals are flavored by compounds called terpenes, which can be removed in the extraction process. They can even be removed, and replaced, with a different flavor (such as removing a hops taste or smell, with vanilla).

Step 5: Establish your market network. This may include direct-to-customer sales (via a website or sales agents), for non-regulated items Amazon, or through retail organizations like dispensaries.

Step 6: Source and assemble your extraction process, including the extraction equipment and any post-processing equipment needed to put the oil or concentrate into a consumer ready format (i.e. vape pens, tincture, etc.). Get competitive quotes on equipment, and go see it in operation before you buy.

Step 7: Develop a comprehensive website, which includes ordering direct, publications on the product, including any scientific research. For fast set-up, use WordPress.

Step 8: Test run your production line, and provide free samples for a limited time.

Step 9: Price your product. A brand name will command a higher price than a generic product. A niche market will also bring higher prices. Do you want a one-time sale, or offer a subscription ?

Step 10: Return on Investment feedback. Set a loop in the chain of supply and sales that allows you to capture and analyze metrics of the cost of goods versus your profit. Adjust your supplier price, and sale price accordingly.

Summary: While this is not a comprehensive list of everything that needs to be done, this will get you on the right path. These steps are merely guidelines, that can get you on the road to profit. You may need to re-number the list, according to your priority and product development. Redefining markets, customers, and profits is a dynamic strategy, since none of those factors are static. Over time, you need to constantly innovate new ways to market and develop your product for a savvy consumer.

20170428-10L-infinity-supercritical-green

Infinity Supercritical Botanical Oil Extraction Machine Which Uses CO2 as the Solvent

Profiting from Botanical Oil Extraction

PDF Download: 20170822-infinity-supercritical-co2-extraction-profit-review

Introduction: The market segment which is making money right now is oil extraction and concentrates. This might be cannabis oil (vape pens), hemp oil (CBDs), or in the nutraceuticals industry, phenols and metabolites. The later is mainly used in the supplement industry in tablet, capsule, and concentrate form (tincture – used to drop into tea, flavor drinks, etc.).

Oil extraction is a value-added segment of the industry, which is more profitable than cultivation, due to the limited number of extractors. Lots of cultivators and large supply, drive prices down. Limited extractors, and small supply, drive prices up.

sonic-extractor-hops-extract-20160707

Research: The best strategy is to research and study the area you want to focus on, and which industry and consumer to target. If you focus on a niche market, you will have better results, than if you do what everyone else does.

Branding: Having your own brand will identify your product with consistency. It allows the consumer to quickly chose your product, and refer your product to others. Word of mouth is sometimes the best advertising, and best of all it’s free.

Steps to Profit

 

Step 1: Identify your botanical, product, and market. What product do you want to sell, and who is going to buy it ?

Step 2: Identify attributes to your product, and benefits of the botanical. Choose a brand name.

Step 3: Establish a botanical supplier and purity. Have a certified lab test your botanical sample, and indicate pesticide free, and available oil. Negotiate your best price on the botanicals, and insist on regular sample testing, and tracking from growth, harvest, and final delivery.

Step 4: Flavinoids. Do you want your brand product to have flavor ? Botanicals are flavored by compounds called terpenes, which can be removed in the extraction process. They can even be removed, and replaced, with a different flavor (such as removing a hops taste or smell, with vanilla).

Step 5: Establish your market network. This may include direct-to-customer sales (via a website or sales agents), for non-regulated items Amazon, or through retail organizations like dispensaries.

Step 6: Source and assemble your extraction process, including the extraction equipment and any post-processing equipment needed to put the oil or concentrate into a consumer ready format (i.e. vape pens, tincture, etc.). Get competitive quotes on equipment, and go see it in operation before you buy.

Step 7: Develop a comprehensive website, which includes ordering direct, publications on the product, including any scientific research. For fast set-up, use WordPress.

Step 8: Test run your production line, and provide free samples for a limited time.

Step 9: Price your product. A brand name will command a higher price than a generic product. A niche market will also bring higher prices. Do you want a one-time sale, or offer a subscription ?

Step 10: Return on Investment feedback. Set a loop in the chain of supply and sales that allows you to capture and analyze metrics of the cost of goods versus your profit. Adjust your supplier price, and sale price accordingly.

Summary: While this is not a comprehensive list of everything that needs to be done, this will get you on the right path. These steps are merely guidelines, that can get you on the road to profit. You may need to re-number the list, according to your priority and product development. Redefining markets, customers, and profits is a dynamic strategy, since none of those factors are static. Over time, you need to constantly innovate new ways to market and develop your product for a savvy consumer.

20170428-10L-infinity-supercritical-green

Infinity Supercritical Botanical Oil Extraction Machine Which Uses CO2 as the Solvent

Infinity Supercritical 10L vs NuAxon CO2

Review: 20171012-infinity-supercritical-vs-nuaxon

NuAxon Website: https://www.nuaxon.com  and https://www.nuaxontech.com/co2-extractors

Overall Comments:

NuAxon: They offer 10L (2 x 5L) and 50L (2 x 25L) and 5,000 psi fully automated system, which requires a PLC (included with the system) to run the system. Made in India. Proprietary software. Company: New to the Cannabis space. Website is hard to look at, with moving train in the background. Machines built: Unknown. Footprint for larger 25L: Huge. 17.5 ft tall, by 25 x 25 feet floorspace. 24+ weeks to build and ship. Location: Indiana and mfg in India. Price of larger 2x25L system: Approximately $500,000+

System: Collection:

NuAxon: They offer several collection vessels, and waste collection vessel, unsure of capacity to collect or prevent carry-over of oil. Design of system looks industrial and complicated.

Infinity has three collection vessels at 1.5 L each, and they use electrostatic precipitation and filter to prevent any carry-over. Fractionation can be controlled by Back Pressure Valve(s) BVP, chiller temperature, and electrostatic precipitation. Infinity has built systems in the USA that are currently running on Cannabis/Hemp, and build time of 2-3 weeks. Shipping takes a few days.

supercritical-10-liter-system-front-view
Infinity Supercritical Uses 3 Collection Separation Vessels

Extraction Vessel:
NuAxon: They offer multiple vessels with quick closure tops. They use high pressure components, which means 1/16 or 1/32 tube size (may have clogging issues) and use pneumatic valves which require external compressor. Typically external air compressors are loud, and require a chiller for cooling.

Infinity System has horizontal or vertical extraction vessels, no moving parts, and includes baskets which allow easy loading and unloading. System interconnecting tube size is 1/2 and 1/4 inch (no clogging).

Baskets also allow flash freezing from harvest, which allows extraction of high-value resin.

Extraction Time:

NuAxon: They claim cycle time of 90 minutes but don’t provide any details, nor any lab results running actual Cannabis. Fast extractions can happen with 5,000 psi systems, however a fast extraction is not the complete story. High pressure extraction will extract everything from the botanical, which results and much longer post processing times to remove the unwanted material (such as waxes and other compounds). High pressure = more waxes. See: https://www.google.com/patents/US7344736  Removing such material can add huge amounts of time to the post processing schedule, which eliminates and time savings originally obtained from extraction of the crude oil. System is build in India. Unclear if how support is done, since manufacturing plant is in India.

Infinity has a 1-3 hour run time, and is experimenting with 30/30 and 45/45 cycle times. Infinity has lab results posted on their webpage running Cannabis, and does lots of testing in the shop in Ferndale, Washington. The extraction pressure is at or below 2,000 psi, which specifically targets the Cannabis or Hemp oil, not the waxes and other materials which have low to no value, and need to be post-processed out. Manufacturing and support is in USA. Parts can be overnight shipped.

Photos of Extract from the Infinity Supercritical CO2 Botanical Extraction System

Separation Vessels:

NuAxon: They use a two separation vessels. Lack of detail limits ability to decipher quality of extraction collection.  Unsure how collection vessels are heated with their system. In general, the vessels need some type of heating system. This can be a enclosed hot water bath (slow heating time and requires a chiller that is actually used for heated water), or solid state electric heat (fast response).

Infinity CO2 system has three collection separation vessels, which use electrostatic precipitation to assist in recovery of oil extract and produces a crude oil. Any crude oil (applies to all CO2 extraction systems) needs to be post processed (dewaxed/rotovaped) and then ready for either direct use for vape pens, or further flash Chromatography or distillation for separation of fractions, which will then be recombined into a recipe for vape pen and concentrates. Infinity uses the solid state heat on the collection/separation vessels.

tribo-gen-static-electricity
Infinity Supercritical Uses Electrostatic Precipitation (ESP) to Assist in the Collection of Cannabis and Hemp Oil Extracts – Infinity discovered the static effect during testing. The action of CO2 moving over Teflon (closed-loop) makes a static charge. The production of a static charge does not require any outside power source – it’s all done just from the tribo-effect of the CO2 moving over Teflon (in-situ). Infinity uses a specially designed (and patent-pending) Teflon device to produce the static charge. Better collection of oil means reduced or eliminated carry-over of oil (i.e. reduced pump maintenance).

CO2 Pump:

NuAxon: High pressure diaphragm pump? Type of pump is unclear. Rated at 350 bar or 5,145 psi. Pump reliability is unknown. Typically high pressure pumps are prone to breakdown, and require more maintenance. More details would be helpful on their website. In large batch systems, it’s important to get CO2 to soak through the entire botanicals, which is more difficult in larger vessels. Typically, CO2 is put in one end of a vessel, and exits out the other end.

Infinity uses a liquid pump (silent operation) with up to 4 gpm per minute CO2 flow. However, we have found through testing that less flow, results in better botanical soak (CO2 permeation) has better results. Combine that with a FlowBar (CO2 distribution tube which runs up through the entire extraction vessel) results in better soak, in less time, and less flow. We also use a heat exchanger that recovers heat from the gearbox and puts that heat into the CO2 flow which reduces power demand. Infinity has been testing and refining our pump for over two years, and it has a good track record of operation in the Cannabis industry. You can add co-solvent in the Infinity machine manually, and a pump cleaning device as an optional add-on to reduce maintenance and clean seals in place. This reduces pump cleaning time with the system, and faster turn-around time to the next cycle/extraction. The name of the game is processing. The more time spent extracting oil in the most efficient time, results in more profits.

infinity-supercritical-10-liter-system-pressure
Infinity Supercritical Uses a Swagelok Back Pressure Value and a Automated Pressure Sensor PID to Maintain System Pressure from the VFD Controlled CO2 Pump

Pressures:

NuAxon: They claim to go up to 350 bar or 5,145 psi, which is the full extraction range. That should be good for any plant extracting process. Anything above 2,000 psi will extract waxes and chlorophyll. That requires a great deal of post processing (which can be up to 5-10 times the amount of extraction time, depending on type of post processing procedure and staff available). Waters uses a system that goes up to that pressure as well, and for groups that want high pressure, most will purchase a Waters (which dominates the Denver market) that can also fractionate oil extract output into three vessels.

Infinity goes up to 2,000 psi and output is targeted for Cannabis or Hemp oil concentrate, not waxes or chlorophyll. Infinity offers a CO2 pump cleaning system.

20171003-infinity-supercritical-co2-liquid-view
Infinity Supercritical Uses CO2 Sight Glass to View Liquid CO2 in System Processing

Pressure Maintenance:

NuAxon: They use a proprietary pressure maintaining system (other information is unknown, and not provided).

Infinity uses a Swagelok BPV (Back Pressure Valve) to precisely regulate pressure, and a automated pressure sensor feedback loop, which is controlled by a VFD. The Variable Frequency Drive regulates the pump RPM, to maintain pressure. Set it, and it maintains pressure. The VFD also has ModBus which allow external communications to network with monitoring and control. Parts made in USA. Spare parts available overnight. Infinity also offers a ethanol based pump cleaning device. This bolt-on option to the 10L Infinity system allows the pump to be cleaned in-place, without removing the pump-head. The system not only cleans the pistons of the pump, but also the seals. By not removing the pump head or seals, can result in huge time savings (and less staff time).

 

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Infinity Supercritical CO2 Pump Cleaning Device

Automation:

NuAxon: They have a fully automated system that requires a PLC (as part of the system) and pneumatic air system. They include manual valves, in case the cycle needs to be interrupted.

Infinity uses standard semi-automated VFD and PID systems. Customer can upgrade to a PLC to monitor the system via network computer, or via smartphone. Additional datalogging capabilities using Filemaker database software, which includes text alerts, maintenance alerts, etc. Cycle time is so fast, that an technician needs to be there at all times. As with any high pressure equipment, running high-value botanicals, an attendant should be there at all times.

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Infinity Supercritical CO2 Semi Automated System With Zone Pressure and Heat Control

Piping:

NuAxon: Unclear what diameter tubes they use. If they are using 5,000 psi compliant tubing, then they’re probably using 1/16 or 1/8 inch tubing, which will clog (ask any Waters operator). Parts made in India.

Infinity uses 1/2 to 1/2 inch stainless steel tubing. No clogging. Parts made in USA and available overnight.

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Infinity Supercritical Uses Standard Pressure Meters and 1/4 to 1/2 Inch Stainless Steel Tubes Which Do Not Clog

Cost:

NuAxon: Around $500,000+ (for 2x25L systems) and long manufacturing times and shipment from India, which can be 6 weeks+. System is huge (footprint is 25 x 25 feet with 17 ft height) and requires crew to assemble.

The Infinity System is $99,000 for a 10L system (number up for larger system configurations which result in a discounted price) compact (24 x 48 x 71 inches) and is rolled out of the crate and ready to install and operate. The Infinity System is designed to fit through any standard sized door, hallway, or elevator. It is mounted on industrial casters, so you can roll it anywhere you want. Since the system is semi-automated, you have the flexibility of running different recipes, and can change up the schedule on-the-fly. System not prone to any software glitches. Does require an attendant at all times, since our cycle times are very fast.

Engineer Review:

NuAxon: Unclear if they have a engineer peer review for the USA (it’s not listed on their website). To operate legally, you will need to have a full peer review by a certified ASME PE before installation (custom reviews can cost more than $15,000). Their larger 25L system looks like it has to be assembled on-site, which requires additional certification.

Infinity has a engineer peer reviewed system, and is already approved in the state of California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Washington, and Oregon. The plug-and-play system is rolled out of the crate and ready to install and operate.

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Infinity Supercritical Engineer Peer Reviewed and Approved for Use in California, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, and Colorado

Overall Comments:

NuAxon: Looks like they have a system originally designed for spices in India (so system may be well proven if that is the case), and converting or marketing to the Cannabis space. They don’t mention Cannabis or Hemp on their website. Unknown in the USA. Country of the pressure vessel manufacture is unknown, assume it’s India.

While the high-automation might seem attractive, unless the PLC is operating with good software 100 percent of the time, it will be frustrating to troubleshoot, especially if something goes wrong and support from India (if support is USA based then that will be better). While Apeks systems are very popular with full automation, the big complaint with Apeks operators is the software failure (which can automatically vent all the CO2) and updates.

Infinity has developed a Supercritical CO2 system specifically for the Cannabis and Hemp industry. The technological improvements have resulted in fast cycle processing time, less carry-over of oil, better CO2 pump operation, and less maintenance. While the Infinity System is smaller (10L per machine), they have found that numbering up gives the operator more flexibility in running different Cannabis varieties, and a faster more consistent processing time (less extractor volume results in faster CO2 and pressure soak). The consistency of the Infinity System results in a superior Cannabis extract. The Infinity System is more comparable to a fine Bourbon compared to a mass-produced Pabst.

 

Cannabis Big Winner in November 2016 Elections

Recreational and medical marijuana were big winners in the November 8th elections. “Voters in California, Massachusetts and Nevada approved recreational marijuana initiatives while an initiative in Maine was leading in the polls Wednesday morning. The 2016 election has proved to be the biggest electoral victory for marijuana reform since 2012.” (Daron Taylor/The Washington Post)

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Marijuana wins big on election night

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