Infinity Supercritical Offers Progressive Pricing Model for Supercritical CO2 Extraction Systems

Infinity Supercritical is pleased to announce a innovation Professional Extractor Package first time buyers incentive pricing.

Standard 10L CO2 System: $99000

First Time Buyers Incentive 

Purchase in August 2017 Price: $39,000

Purchase in September 2017 Price: $49,000

Purchase in October 2017 Price: $69,000

Purchase in November 2017 Price: $79,000

Purchase in December 2017 Price: $89,000

Special Pricing Terms: Limit one 10L system per new customer. Limited time offer. Support, training, shipping, is not included in price. All terms and pricing are listed on a official quote/invoice. Offer may be withdrawn at any time. Typical build time is currently 2-3 weeks based on suppliers ability to provide parts on time.

Sustainable Production of Cannabinoids with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technologies

PDF Review: 20170815-infinity-supercritical-co2-cannabinoids-review

Source: https://repository.tudelft. nl/islandora/object/uuid%3Ac1b4471f-ea42 -47cb-a230-5555d268fb4c
Title: Sustainable Production of Cannabinoids with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technologies

ISBN: 9789085707301

The goal of this thesis was to develop an alternative extraction method of natural compounds of interest from plant material. In specific, the goal was to avoid using organic solvents as much as possible due to residual solvents problems, low selectivity, high energy consumption, and environmental worries.

The alternative method consists of using supercritical fluid CO2 to extract compounds from plant material. There are numerous advantages to doing SFE with CO2, including CO2 being nonflammable, relatively inert, inexpensive, the ease of removal of the solvent, the plant material being non- hazardous afterwards, the different solubility of compounds depending on the temperature and pressure of the fluid, and low critical temperature allowing for extraction of heat- sensitive materials without damage.
The downsides to using CO2 include it not being a great solvent for larger polar molecules and requiring the stream to always be under high pressure which lead to higher initial investment costs. The higher initial investment costs can be outweighed though by how cheap CO2 is and the fewer steps needed for purification.  The focus of the thesis is on the separation of phytocannabinoids (or cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant) from the plant material. There are over 60 different phytocannabinoids with the most commons ones being (-)-D9- tetrahydrocannabinol (D9- THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene CBC), cannabigerol (CBG) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). This study will focus on D9-THC, CBN, CBD, and CBG. Each of these compounds have their own medicinal effects, from pain relief and nausea relief with D9- THC, a sedative effect with CBN, convulsion, anxiety, and inflammation relief with CBD, and analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects with CBG.

The isolation of these compounds from the plant material is of high interest due to the drawbacks of smoking cannabis and different medicinal effects of each compound.

The production method proposed for cannabinoids with purities higher than 95% involves a pre- treatment step, where the acid forms of the cannabinoids are changed to the neutral ones due to better solubility, extraction using SFE with CO2, winterization of the extract to remove waxes, and then purification through centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC).

The cannabis plant strain used in this thesis is Bedrocan which contains around 18% D9- THC and less than 1% of other cannabinoids, thus the main focus will be on extraction of the D9-THC. CBN can be obtained through specific storage conditions to degrade the D9-THC into CBN. CBD and CBG can be obtained using the same process on different cannabis strains with higher concentrations of other cannabinoids.

CO2 becomes a supercritical fluid at temperatures higher than 31.1 degrees C and pressures higher than 1070 psi. This means that the CO2 can only be described as a fluid as it is indistinguishable between a gas or liquid. This is important because it allows for the tuning of the solvent. By changing the pressure or temperature supercritical CO2 can become more or less liquid-like with increasing or decreasing solvency power. CPC is similar to other chromatography techniques. It uses two immiscible liquid phases and uses a centrifugal field to force the mobile phase through the stationary phase.

Each compound has different interactions with these liquids and thus migrate through the phases at different speeds. Thus, they can be collected at the end of the column in relatively pure amounts. Decarboxylation of D -9-THC is necessary due to the acidic form found in the cannabis plant. Usually this occurs during combustion when smoking the plant, but when it comes to medicinal products it will likely need to be transformed without this step. The usual method for large scale decarboxylation involves organic solvents, basic aqueous solutions, and lots of energy, thus alternatives are preferred. One alternative is to pre-treat the cannabis plant before extraction.

When heating the plant material between 90 and 140 degrees C, the decarboxylation reaction from D9- THCA to its neutral form happens at near 100% selectivity. Since the process happens in a solid-state reaction, which leads to a catalytic process, the process could be estimated with a pseudo first order process. This reaction tends to happen at a lower activation energy than normally assumed possibly due to aliphatic and aromatic acids present as other plant constituents in cannabis. While adding strong acids seem to encourage this reaction and could decrease the activation energy, it causes toxic waste from the process which may be bad for other compounds of interest.

The solubility of D9-THC in supercritical CO2 was found for different temperatures and pressures. Below 1914 psi and 40 degrees C, the solubility could not accurately be recorded due to low solubility. In general, the solubility increases with pressure at all temperatures. At about 2175 psi, the solubility is found to decrease with increasing temperature, and above that pressure the solubility is found to increase with increasing temperature.

Some experimental values for D9-THC in supercritical CO2 from the data collected. At 42 degrees C, changing the pressure from 1914 psi to 3640 psi increased the solubility from by 4 times (0.20 to 0.83). At 54 degrees C, changing the pressure from 2030 psi to 3408 psi increased the solubility by around 6 times (0.33 to 1.99). At 61 degrees C, changing the pressure from 1987 psi to 3190 psi increased the solubility increased the solubility by about 7.3 times (0.32 to 2.33). At 72 degrees C, changing the pressure from 2117 psi to 3190 psi increased the solubility about 3 times (0.98 to 2.95).

At most of the temperatures and pressures evaluated in this study the constants created a good predictability for the solubility. The exception being at above 72 degrees C and low pressures.

The solubility of CBN in supercritical CO2 was found for different temperatures and pressures. In general, the solubility increases with pressure at all temperatures, but not as much as with D9-THC. Interestingly, the highest solubility was found at 53 degrees C.

The article concludes that CBN solubility in supercritical CO2 is different enough from D -9-THC that they could be extracted separately to isolate both compounds. This would include a two step extraction, there the plant material is first extracted at 53 degrees C and 1885 psi for CBN and then 2900 psi at the same temperature for D-9-THC.

The solubility of CBG in supercritical CO2 was found for different temperatures and pressures. In general, the solubility increases with pressure at all temperatures, but by a much less magnitude than the D9-THC. Also, the highest solubility was found at the highest temperature.

The article concludes that the solubility trends for CBG are similar to D9-THC, but the actual values are different enough between the two to extract them separately or through fractionation.

The solubility of CBD in supercritical CO2 was found for different temperatures and pressures. In general, the solubility increases with pressure at all temperatures. The difference in solubility between pressures is similar to CBN. Interestingly, the highest solubility occurs at 53 degrees C, like CBN.

The article concludes that CBD’s solubility trends are more similar to CBN and that they are different enough to D9-THC to be extracted separately.

When comparing all four cannabinoids, the difference in solubility can come from a couple things. This includes their melting point (with solid cannabinoids showing better solubility than liquid ones) and their chemical structures (due to CO2 having a higher affinity for non-polar compounds). Overall, CBN has the highest solubility in supercritical CO2. All of the solubility of the different cannabinoids in supercritical CO2 is on the order of 1-2g per kg of CO2 which place them at high enough for SFE.

An example is described to show how one could extract the majority of D-9-THC without other cannabinoids. In a cannabis plant containing 5% D9-THC and 6% CBD (Bediol strain), a first step extraction at ~1885 psi and 42 degrees C would extract 26 percentage of the THC and all of the CBD.

While the CBD would need to be purified, a large amount of the THC could be collected at very pure amounts using this step extraction method.

It was determined that particle size distribution of the plant material had little influence on extraction yields, and thus weren’t investigated.

The highest total yield (extract weight divided by starting weight) was 23.3 percentage and was found at the highest pressure and lowest temperature, 3335 psi and 40 degrees C respectively. This didn’t vary much from the differences in pressure, with 21 percentage being achieved as low as 2175 psi and is believed to be because the extraction was already being ran to completion. This was at flow rates of CO2 of 6 kg per hour for 3 hours. In terms of THC yield, the best yield was found at lower temperatures (40 degrees C).

In terms of time for extraction (at 2610 psi and 6 kg per hour of CO2), the maximum D9- THC yield was found at around 3.75 hours at 40 degrees C. This yield was 98 percentage. Compared to at 50 degrees C, where the maximum yield was reached at about 1.5 hours, however a maximum yield of 74 percentage is reached. During the extraction time, the D9-THC yield increases linearly in time at the same rate between the two temperatures. In comparison to hexane extraction, the D9-THC yields are about the same (85.3 percentage for CO2 and 85.9 percentage for hexane). The other cannabinoid yields were slightly higher with CO2.

The other cannabinoids were found to have the highest yields at 40 degrees C when varying temperature at 2610 psi. All three other cannabinoid yields decrease with increasing pressure at 40 degrees C, while D9-THC’s yield was stable over pressure ranges. This implies that the two step extraction method at 40 degrees C (first at 2175 psi and then at 2900 psi) could first extract the other cannabinoids and then extract the D9-THC, allowing for a more pure extract of D9-THC. This is consistent with what was stated before.

A winterization step could be avoided to remove waxes by having a two stage separator, where the CO2 to decompressed to a medium pressure to precipitate the waxes, followed by another decompression step to recover the cannabinoids. The exact temperatures and pressures would have to be tuned to the solubility of the cannabinoids in the CO2, but should be feasible. In this thesis, a winterization step was included with hexane. This involves dissolving the extract in hexane and freezing it to precipitate out the waxes.

The extraction curves found in this paper determined that the solvent to feed ratio required for extraction of D9-THC is about 0.7g of D9-THC extract per kg of CO2. This is the same for both 40 and 50 degrees C.

It was found that using CO2 as the stationary phase and a water/ethanol mixture as the mobile phase, that no adequate separation could be achieved. Same with CO2 as the stationary phase and a water/methanol mixture as the mobile phase. There are hopes to use supercritical CO2 as the stationary phase, but no commercial CPC machine can handle the pressures required for such a machine.

With the CO2 SFE process outlined, around 80 percentage of the organic solvents can be recycled and 96 percentage of the CO2 can be recycled. Also, the plant matrix after extraction is clean of organic solvent and can be disposed of much easier than with the hydrocarbon extraction. This favors the CO2 SFE process in relation to the environmental impact of the process.

In conclusion CO2 SFE can be used to extract cannabinoids from cannabis plant material. It is heavily favored economically, environmentally, and regulation wise compared to hydrocarbon extraction. The total amount of process steps is also lower than hydrocarbon extraction. It can produce 85 percentage D9-THC extract after a winterization step, which can be further purified. One method of this is CPC which can produce +99 percentage D9-THC. The cost can be largely reduced by having a lower initial cost of cannabis.

Build Your Own Brand Licensing

Infinity Supercritical is now offering the Build Your Own Brand licensing opportunity.

If you have a machine shop, or would like to brand your own Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction System for botanicals, Infinity is offering the following:

  • 10L Plans and Parts List
  • ASME Engineer Peer Reviewed and Proven System
  • Closed Loop and Certified in CA, AZ, NV, WA, OR, and CO
  • Machine Your Parts or Purchase Parts From Infinity and Assemble at your location
  • Enter into the Manufacturing Equipment side of Cannabis Industry
  • Typical Research and Development for this type of Equipment exceeds $1 Million
  • Typical Development and Testing Time for New Systems is about 2 years
  • Licensing Technology gives you Instant Access to Industry Sales
  • Optional Drop Ship from our Shop – You Sell and we Build and Ship
  • One Time Fee Starting at $250,000 – No Royalties – Unlimited Build License
  • Market with Infinity Supercritical Inside – Brand Recognition
  • With payment you can start building or selling immediately

20170217-infinity-supercritical-10-liter-front-control-panel

With the Build Your Own Brand licensing opportunity, you can customize the frame design and colors. The Infinity frame is completely modular and bolt-together for rapid reconfiguration.

20170608-infinity-supercritical-sdr-test-frame

Modular Frame: Our Caster Beam frame allows you to configure your extraction equipment in many ways.

infinity-turbine-haas-vssomax-waterjet-infinity-turbine

Machining Parts: We can provide you with all the parts, or custom make parts for your system with our Vertical Milling Machine or our Omax Waterjet. We’ve already made the huge investment in the machines, now you have the opportunity to use them for your business.

 

infinity-supercritical-cannabis-extract-525

Quality Extracts: The Infinity Supercritical extraction system can provide extractions from any botanicals and provides a superior product.

Web Page Design and SEO Optimization: You can buy a page on our website, or build your own website to advertising your product. We also have a page optimizing SEO algorithm using Filemaker Database which can point tens of thousands of page links to your site.

Contact: greg@infinitysupercritical.com

Cannabis Sativa: The Plant Of The Thousand and One Molecules

Publication Review: 20170804-infinity-supercritical-review-cannabis-benefits

Publication Review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740396/

Andre, C. M., Hausman, J. F., & Guerriero, G. (2016). Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules. Frontiers in plant science, 7.

Cannabis plants have a lot of different types of chemicals that have been suggested to be beneficial to humans. These include cannabinoids, terpenes, and phenolic compounds.

Research has been limited due the illegality of cultivation, but more and more people are looking at the non-THC active components of the cannabis plant that seem to work together to produce a powerful entourage effect.

Phytocannabinoids are terpenophenolic compounds, meaning part terpene and part natural phenol, and over 90 different types have been found in cannabis plants or as break-down products.
The predominant compounds found in the plant in this category are quote THCA, CBDA and cannabinolic acid (CBNA), followed by cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) and cannabinodiolic acid (CBNDA) unquote.

These phytocannabinoid acids go unto a decarboxylation reaction to their corresponding neutral forms, sometimes naturally in the plant, but normally after harvesting with heat.

Most of the medicinal properties of cannabinoids come from their interactions with the endocannabinoid systems in humans.

This system is thought to quote modulate or play a regulatory role in a variety of physiological processing including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, memory, inflammation, insulin, sensitivity and fat and energy metabolism unquote.

THC, the neutral form of THCA, exhibits anti- inflammatory, anti-cancer, analgesic, muscle relaxant, neuro-antioxidative, and anti- spasmodic activities, but also has been associated with a number of side effects including anxiety, cholingeric deficits, and immunosuppression.

CBD, the neutral form of CBDA, has been shown to possess anti-anxiety, anti-nausea, anti- arthritic, anti-psychotic, anti- inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties, while also reducing THC side effects, increasing the safety of cannabis extracts.

CBC, the third most prevalent phytocannabinoid, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, sedative, analgesic, anti- bacterial, and anti-fungal properties.

CBG, the neutral form of CBGA, has been linked to possibly be beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Finally CBN, found mostly in aged cannabis due to THC degradation, has similar effects health effects to THC, but focuses more on the immune system rather than the central nervous system.

Terpenes, responsible for the odor and flavor of cannabis, form the largest group of phytochemicals with more than 100 compounds identified in cannabis.

These are split into four different groups, isoprene (5 carbons), monoterpenes (10 carbons), sesquiterpenes (15 carbons), and triterpenes (30 carbons), which are built by multiples of the isoprene unit.

Terpenes easily cross membranes like the blood-brain barrier and have numerous health benefits depending on the compound.

Beta-myrcene is a potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anxiolytic compound, alpha- pinene is an acetylcholinesteral inhibitor which means it may aid in memory abilities which could counteract memory issues arising from THC, pentacyclic tripterpenes have anti-bacterial, anti- fungal, anti- inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties, and the list continues.

The phenol compounds contain flavonoids and lignans in the cannabis plant.

Flavonoids have a wide range of biological effects and share some properties that terpenes and cannabinoids exhibit like anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuro-protective properties.

Lignans also have a wide array of properties, including having antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic, antitumorigenic, and anti-obesity activities.

Altogether, these compounds work together to produce this entourage effect. Some examples is that a full cannabis extract has a stronger muscle-antispastic effect compared to pure THC, or that CBD increases the penetration of THC in muscle cells and reduces cognitive defects, or terpenes modulated the affinity of THC as well as helping with the bioavailability of cannabinoids when transdermally applied.

Due to this synergy, it has been suggested that treatments with phytocannabinoids will contain mixes of specific cannabinoids and terpene extracts to better fight against acne, depression, anxiety, insomnia, dementia, and addiction.

Optimization and Characterization of Cannabis Extracts Obtained By Supercritical Fluid Extraction

PDF Review: 20170719-infinity-supercritical-sco2-review

Source Review: Authors: Omar, J., Olivares, M., Alzaga, M., and Etxebarria, N. (2013).

Title: Optimization and characterization of marihuana extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and focused ultrasound extraction and retention time locking GC-MS.

Journal of Separation Science, 36(8), 1397-1404.

Several monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are responsible for the unique and strong smell of the cannabis plant.

Terpenes are compounds in a group of naturally occurring volatile unsaturated hydrocarbons built off of isoprene which has the molecular C5H8, with monoterpenes having the structure C10H16 and sesquiterpenes having the structure C15H24.

While sesquiterpenes are in lower amounts in the buds of the cannabis plant, through drying the plant gives off a greater loss of monoterpenes, which would mean most of the smell of the plant while drying is from the monoterpenes.

Monoterpenes are mostly unstable and thus can be easily altered or destroyed in many normal extraction techniques, which has led to much focus on using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 to extract them.

Terpenes are miscible in CO2 at low temperatures and pressures while many non- volatile compounds (like cannabinoids) are not, which mean they can be extracted separately.

Due to these miscibility differences, two different optimal extraction parameters were found when trying to optimize the extraction yield for terpenes or for cannabinoids.

The extraction parameters investigated included pressures between 100 bar (1450psi) and 250 bar (3626 psi), temperatures between 35 (95 F) and 55 C (131 F), flow of solvent between 1-2 ml/min (extracting 100mg of plant matter), and addition of ethanol as a cosolvent between 0 and 40 percent by weight.

In reference to terpenes, temperature and ethanol percentage were significant, with low temperature and no ethanol being the best conditions.

In reference to cannabinoids, only ethanol percentage was found to be significant, with mild ethanol percentages being found to be most efficient.

Due to the insignificance of the other factors,

100 bar (3626 psi), 35 degrees Celsius (95 F), and a solvent feed of 1 ml/min are both optimal for terpenes and for cannabinoids, while 0 percent of ethanol is best for terpenes and 20 percent is best for cannabinoids.

It was also found that different cannabis strains had different concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes.

For example, Critical and Amnesia are richer in cannabinoids than Somango, AK-47 and 1024.

Also in respect to terpenes, Critical species had the highest concentrations of alpha- pinene and beta-pinene and Amnesia has the highest concentrations of limonene.

Out of all the five species, five monoterpenes, twelve sesquiterpenes, and eight cannabinoids were able to be positively identified and quantified.

The separate extraction of terpenes and cannabinoids is important because terpenes contain their own therapeutic benefits and thus can be used without the psychotropic effects of the cannabinoids.

 

The optimal conditions mean one could extract all the terpenes first and then flush the system with ethanol to extract all the cannabinoids without changing the other parameters. To back this up, in a subsequent extraction as detailed above, all of the monoterpenes were found in the no ethanol extraction and only contain trace amounts of three of the eight cannabinoids.

 

The study also investigated the optimal extraction parameters of using focused ultrasound extraction with isopropanol and cyclohexane and found the best conditions for overall extraction were 3 s(-1) cycles, 80 percent of amplitude on the sonicator, 5 minutes of sonication time with a 1:1 mixture of isopropanol and cyclohexane.

While this extraction yielded slightly more overall extraction than the SFE, it didn’t allow for the selectivity of the terpenes and the cannabinoids.

Thus it is recommended that SFE CO2 is used for cannabis extraction’s due to the minimal difference in yields, the selectivity it offers, the food-safe nature of it, and the low-flammability of the solvent.

Technology Review of Cell Lysis Methods

PDF Download: 20170718-infinity-supercritical-cell-lysis-methods

 

Plant Cell Pressure |Strength of Plant Cell Walls | Ways to Break Cell Walls

 

How to Break Down Cell Walls:

Mechanical:

-Grinding: Mortar and pestle, which is often done with plants frozen in liquid nitrogen.

-Beadbeating: Cracking open cells using ceramic or glass beads, typically done in suspension and in a vortex.
-Sonification: Using ultrasound with plant matter in a solution, by cavitation shockwave. -Homogenizer: Shear force by forcing cells through tubes smaller than cells, by rotor- stator (rotating blade) or outer layer shear (French Press).

-Freezing: Cell rupture from freeze thaw process. Can take lots of time.

-High Temperature (and Pressure): Cells walls are disrupted, but denatures proteins, and heat can damage cell contents. Typically by autoclave, microwave, steam, etc.

Non-Mechanical Methods:

-Enzymes: Remove cell wall by using naturally occurring enzymes.

-Chemicals: Organic solvents like ethanol (alcohol), especially for hydrophobic (doesn’t like water) molecules. Commonly used with shearing forces.
-Bacteria: EDTA, negative bacteria, to chelate cations that bore holes in cell walls.

REF: http://bitesizebio.com/13536/bringing- down-the-walls-part-ii-8-methods-to-break- down-cell-walls/

 

Cell Lysis Methods:
Reagent Based Methods:
-Fast, efficient, reproducible
-Can extract total protein or subcellular fractions
-Disrupts cell wall and or lipid membrane

 

Physical Methods:
-Expensive equipment
-Larger footprint for equipment

-Less reproducible

-Not compatible with high-throughput and small volumes

-Aggregation and denaturation of protein may occur
-Cells disrupt at different times

REF: https://www.thermofisher. com/us/en/home/life-science/protein- biology/protein-biology-learning- center/protein-biology-resource-library/pierce- protein-methods/traditional-methods-cell-

 

 

Tensile Strength of Cell Walls

Cylindrical Cell Shape: 100 atm or 1,470 psi

Spherical Cell Shape: 95 atm or 1,396 psi

Spherical Cell Shape: 30 atm or 441 psi

REF: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1074911/pdf/plntphys0 0593-0165.pdf

Plant Cell Vacuoles

The central vacuole (may be 80 percent of space) is a membrane bound sac which provides cell support and helps the plant function with growth.

Turgor Pressure: Vacuoles help to maintain and control the rigidity of the cell (structure),

by compensating the osmotic pressure from within the cell and pressure exerted from outside the cell.

REF: https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/vacuole.html

Additional Reading:

Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

REF: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740396/

 

Cell Disruption Using a Microfluidizer

Using a Microfluidizer versus a French Press using the same 20,000 psi back pressure, resulted in 92 percent breakage in 8 passes, versus only 50 percent breakge for the French Press in 7 passes.

REF: https://www.microfluidicscorp.com/sites/default/files/application-note-cell- disruption-publication-summaries.pdf

Practical Use of Continuous Processing in Developing and Scaling Up Laboratory Processes

Continuous flow reactors allow for better control of exothermic processing than do batch reactions, and allow for a more efficient and safe scale-up of rapid reactions in a smaller footprint.

REF: http://pubs.acs. org/doi/abs/10.1021/op0100605? journalCode=oprdfk

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Cannabinoids from Cannabis Sativa

PDF Link to Review: 20170714-infinity-supercritical-sco2-science-review

SEATTLE, WA  July 2017 (Infinity Supercritical Staff Article Review)

Supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 is already used on a large scale for botanical extraction due to its low cost, generally safe nature, and well known properties.

Reference science pdf article: Rovetto, Laura J., and Niccolo V. Aieta. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L.  The Journal of Supercritical Fluids (2017)

Supercritical (SC) CO2 properties, like density, and thus solvent power, change with temperature and pressure allowing for selectivity via tuning.

One can also use more polar co-solvents, like ethanol, to expand the extraction range of the low-polarity CO2 to include more polar components.

Previous research has shown two different optimal extraction parameters with SFE for terpenes and cannabinoids.

This study did not find a significant difference in extraction rate from 313-333 Kelvin (104- 140 F).
During the extraction time (during the linear trend before exhaustion), a yield of 0.00243g of extract/g of CO2, 0.00455g of extract/g of CO2, and 0.00666g of extract/g of CO2 was found for 17 MPa, 24 MPa, and 34 MPa respectively at 328K. 16.63 percent THC plant potency.

At 34 MPa, 0.0066g of extract/g of CO2, 0.01361g of extract/g of CO2, 0.00431g of extract/g of feed, and 0.00186g of extract/g of feed for the potencies 16.63 percent, 14.03 percent, 10.11 percent and 6.05 percent THC cannabis respectively.

Comparing using SC CO2 at 328K between 17, 24, and 34 MPa, the higher the pressure, the higher the yield, but lower the THC potency of the final mixture. 7.4 percent, 17.2 percent, 18.5 percent extract yield in comparison to total start weight; 76.23 percent, 70.63 percent, 69.41 percent THC potency for over 2 hours. 16.63 percent THC potency starting material and S/F ratios of 50 for high pressures, 100 for low.

At these temperature and pressures, partial decarboxylation takes place on the THCA to THC.

Higher Pressure = Lower Potency

They used a multi-stage depressurization chillers to precipitate the extract. Most of theTHC (and highest extract amount) was found in the first stage at 13 MPa (1,885 psi) and 328K (130 F), but was waxy, pasty, and darker in color. In the second and third separator MPa (1,305 psi) and 328K (130 F) and MPa (870 psi) and 298K (77 F), more fluid yellow color extract appeared.

Compared different potency cannabis (A 16.63 percent, B 14.03 percent, C 10.11 percent, and D 6.05 percent), leading to potencies of extract of A 69.41 percent, B 61.21 percent, C 57.86 percent, and D 56.06 percent total THC. Thus the more originally potent, the more potent the extract.

Extraction efficiency (in relation to THC) rises slightly as potencies decreases (A 89.89 percent, B 89.17 percent, C 90.31 percent, D 92.23 percent).

Extraction efficiency increases as potency decreases.

They attempted to use ethanol as a co- solvents. This would cause more additional process steps, unless you want to use winterization, in which case it does not heavily modify your process line.

No major difference between using 5 percent and 10 percent ethanol by weight in extraction, but noticeable decrease dropping to 2.5 percent. Thus 5 percent is an efficient amount of co-solvents. (328K 131 F, 34 MPa 4,931 psi, S/F 20)

If ethanol is used, use 5 percent.

With the conditions in 12, the plant material was exhausted within 50 minutes of extraction.

Ethanol pulses versus constant flow was compared and pulses either performed better, or the same as constant flow. (2 hour extraction, 5 percent by weight ethanol divided into 3 pulses at 0 minutes, 50 minutes and 110 minutes.)

Since plant material was at exhaustion by the 50 minute mark, only the first pulse was needed to be applied, meaning minimal ethanol is necessary.

Ethanol drastically decreases the SF ratio necessary for lower potencies cannabis to be extracted (only 60 percent of the mass of extract gained using ethanol achieved at 2 hours, compared to the 100 percent gained in 50 minutes).

Something not mentioned in the article, the residual THC in the exhausted plant material is about the same for the lower potency cannabis, implying that the 2 hour extraction extracts all the THC and the extra mass accumulated with the ethanol comes from additional cannabinoids.

Summary:

  1. Higher Pressure = Lower Potency

2. Extraction efficiency increases as potency decreases.

3. Ethanol cosolvent increases extraction, optimized at 5 percent ethanol added.

4. Pulsing performs better than constant flow.

 

 

 

 

 

Infinity Supercritical Introduces New Ultra-Efficient Organic Method of Botanical Oil Extraction

Press Release PDF

SEATTLE, June 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Infinity Supercritical LLC, a leading manufacturer of botanical extraction equipment, announces the industry’s first organic method of oil extraction using distilled water as the solvent.

The new method involves a spinning disc reactor system which is being introduced into the industry for the extraction of oil from cannabis and hemp. The oil extract, called a concentrate, can be used in vape pens, edibles, and further processed into CBDs for medical and health purposes.

The system is so efficient that the process takes a few seconds, instead of hours or days, which is common in the industry now. In addition, the system uses distilled water as the solvent, instead of commonly used CO2, ethanol, or butane.

With a continuous feed system, different botanicals or varieties can be processed on-the-fly. Legacy batch systems can only process one botanical or variety at a time.

The equipment is modular and can be scaled up to any size. As a continuous feed, continuous flow process, batch systems are now obsolete. The smaller footprint results in lower initial acquisition, maintenance, and operational costs. The added benefit of a smaller continuous feed system is more efficient use of energy.

This process technology can also be used in other industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, nutraceuticals, and algae oil extraction. In the high-tech sector, the process can produce quantum dots, which have been identified as a future solar cell technology.

Infinity Supercritical LLC develops and markets innovative botanical oil extraction systems. Emphasis is placed on developing new technology to reduce extraction time, and producing a superior oil product, maximizing extracted antioxidants, terpenes, and nutrients. Industries served include cannabis, hemp, and hops. Please visit http://www.infinitysupercritical.com for more information.

 

 

Cannabis Oil Production For Profit

PDF Download: 20170302-infinity-supercritical-cannabis-oil-for-profit

Visit our Amazon Extraction Store for extraction and pen supplies.

Cannabis sweeps the nation

As the Cannabis revolution swings across America, states going legal are raking in huge tax revenue, and citizens are finally getting access to medical and recreational benefits of Cannabis production. The momentum is slowing moving towards oil (concentrates) which provide easier access to deliver the benefits via vape pens, edibles, and concentrates for medical purposes (CBD’s). With the political aspects aside, this review will list the aspects of producing Cannabis oil for profit.

20170217-infinity-supercritical-10-liter-front
Using a Infinity Supercritical 10L CO2 Extraction System is a good starting point for a oil refining business.

 

Supply versus demand

The mystique of the Cannabis industry has lots of people jumping into the mix, without knowledge of running a business, or the nuances of running a business to make money. A few are becoming millionaires, but most are breaking even, or losing money. Just look at the number of licenses issued in Colorado, and how supply has effected pricing. Business Insider reports that the price of wholesale marijuana has dropped by half in about a year.

http://www.businessinsider.com/marijuanas-getting-cheaper-in-colorado-2016-9

Plan a startup strategy

What differentiates those making money, and those losing money ?

Those who make money set out with a plan, a budget, funding, and a team to deliver that plan. If you set out with detailed goals and a strategy, you’re already ahead of most of the groups in the industry. Failure to plan, is a plan for failure.

You need to have a startup plan, growth, and exit plan. If you plan and play your cards right, you’ll end up with a successful business.

Information is paramount to profit

In the planning stages, it’s critical to become informed. Read, research, inquire, and educate yourself about what you are getting into.

Read: Study online information.

Research: Online studies, scientific research papers, pricing models and consumer demand.

Inquire: Existing successful operations, and those that are not, and why they are not.

Educate: Sometimes the key to success is a very fine line, stack the deck in your favor.

http://www.infinitysupercritical.com/publications.html

 

Determine your business path to success

Select the part of the industry, that interests you the most, and makes the most money.

While this may be easier said than done, select a industry segment that you will enjoy working in, and develop it.

If you are vertically integrated, and have lots of funding, you can run an entire operation from cultivation to retail sales. The savvy types will focus on one targeted segment and make money with that segment, then grow by acquisition.

 

Start with oil extraction

Who makes the most money in the oil industry ? When compared to the hydrocarbon oil industry, it is the refiners.

http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-gas-profits-20150722-story.html

In the Cannabis industry, the most value-added is extracting and refining the botanical oil.

http://blog.sfgate.com/smellthetruth/2015/01/12/is-cannabis-extraction-the-future-of-a-multi-billion-dollar-industry/

 

Why is Cannabis oil extraction potentially the most profitable and least vulnerable to industry pitfalls ?

While supply and demand will ultimately determine overall industry income, as a Cannabis oil refinery lab (including post processing), you have the flexibility to determine downstream products. With a extraction system, you can make live resin, vape pens, concentrates, shatter, etc. And like other industries, you can tailor the output according to the market demand. Cultivators and retails do not have such flexibility. The ability to morph according to customer demand is an important factor to profitability.

What is the best method of cultivation of Cannabis to make a methodical profit ?

The best profit model would be a indoor grow, with staggered starting and harvest cycles, on a weekly basis. This will not only utilize your energy, personnel, and extraction lab more efficiently, but also allows you to tailor downstream product offerings to consumer demand, while providing a fresh product at all times. While outdoor grows are great, they are only once a year. The stress at harvest season is tremendous, and all that supply drives prices down, at that time of year.

FogPonics is the best kept secret in the Cannabis industry

Developed by a LA entrepreneur, the vertical grow tower system provides a weekly harvest, optimizing energy, personnel, and production specifically targeting oil production. On a five week grow out cycle, FogPonics is designed for oil production with fast growth varieties like Cinderella.

 

Oil extraction and post production

As oil is extracted from botanicals, the end product is a substance commonly referred to as crude oil. While this material can be used for dabs, it is more likely to go into post processing for refining downstream into concentrates or other products. It is typical for a extraction system to have a complimentary post processing lab, to refine and separate the oil for consumer products.

 

Strategy for success

Determining your actual business model will depend on your goals and the market in your area, but we recommend the following:

1. Start a extraction facility with post-processing lab.

2. If supply is an issue, vertically integrate with a FogPonics vertical grow facility.

3. Tailor your output products to demand.

4. Start or acquire your own vape pen brand, or develop products with your concentrates.

ROI App: http://www.infinitysupercritical.com/roi.html

roi

Flash Chromatography for Separation of THC, Terpenes, and Cannabinoids

PDF Download Link: 20170206-infinity-supercritical-flash-chromatography

Distillation is commonly used to purify and separate liquids. In the Cannabis industry, this is typically done by thin film or simple distillation, which uses heat to vaporize (evaporate) components, which are then condensed into fractions. Those fractions (THC, CBD, and Terpenes) can then be recombined for a recipe, or signature oil which can be used for concentrates (edibles) or vape pens. The new technique is called Flash Chromatography. http://www.biotage.com/news/effective-cannabinoid-purification-by-flash-chromatography

sonic-extractor-hops-extract-20160707

What is Flash Chromatography ?

Flash chromatography is a method to easily separate complex mixtures of compounds. It is based on column chromatography, which is a technique to purify (separate) compounds based on polarity and hydrophobicity. Separate occurs between differential partitioning between mobile and stationary phase. Introduce a liquid (Cannabis oil extract) and this separation technique will result in THC, Cannabinoids, and Terpenes.

http://static1.buchi.com/sites/default/files/microsite/downloads/Process_Flyer_A4_en_final.pdf

How Can I Use This In My Extraction Process ?

If you already have a CO2 extraction system, you will need to winterize your crude oil, then it will be ready for Flash Chromatography. As you identify the components to separate, the machine will automatically identify and then target components to separate into different vials. You can then recombine these separations in to recipes (for example, 10 percent THC, 85 percent CBD, and 5 percent terpenes). Using this method you can make custom vape pens, or concentrates.