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Please visit our website for more information: Infinity 10L Subscription Special
PDF Download: 20170302-infinity-supercritical-cannabis-oil-for-profit
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Cannabis sweeps the nation
As the Cannabis revolution swings across America, states going legal are raking in huge tax revenue, and citizens are finally getting access to medical and recreational benefits of Cannabis production. The momentum is slowing moving towards oil (concentrates) which provide easier access to deliver the benefits via vape pens, edibles, and concentrates for medical purposes (CBD’s). With the political aspects aside, this review will list the aspects of producing Cannabis oil for profit.
Supply versus demand
The mystique of the Cannabis industry has lots of people jumping into the mix, without knowledge of running a business, or the nuances of running a business to make money. A few are becoming millionaires, but most are breaking even, or losing money. Just look at the number of licenses issued in Colorado, and how supply has effected pricing. Business Insider reports that the price of wholesale marijuana has dropped by half in about a year.
Plan a startup strategy
What differentiates those making money, and those losing money ?
Those who make money set out with a plan, a budget, funding, and a team to deliver that plan. If you set out with detailed goals and a strategy, you’re already ahead of most of the groups in the industry. Failure to plan, is a plan for failure.
You need to have a startup plan, growth, and exit plan. If you plan and play your cards right, you’ll end up with a successful business.
Information is paramount to profit
In the planning stages, it’s critical to become informed. Read, research, inquire, and educate yourself about what you are getting into.
Read: Study online information.
Research: Online studies, scientific research papers, pricing models and consumer demand.
Inquire: Existing successful operations, and those that are not, and why they are not.
Educate: Sometimes the key to success is a very fine line, stack the deck in your favor.
Determine your business path to success
Select the part of the industry, that interests you the most, and makes the most money.
While this may be easier said than done, select a industry segment that you will enjoy working in, and develop it.
If you are vertically integrated, and have lots of funding, you can run an entire operation from cultivation to retail sales. The savvy types will focus on one targeted segment and make money with that segment, then grow by acquisition.
Start with oil extraction
Who makes the most money in the oil industry ? When compared to the hydrocarbon oil industry, it is the refiners.
In the Cannabis industry, the most value-added is extracting and refining the botanical oil.
Why is Cannabis oil extraction potentially the most profitable and least vulnerable to industry pitfalls ?
While supply and demand will ultimately determine overall industry income, as a Cannabis oil refinery lab (including post processing), you have the flexibility to determine downstream products. With a extraction system, you can make live resin, vape pens, concentrates, shatter, etc. And like other industries, you can tailor the output according to the market demand. Cultivators and retails do not have such flexibility. The ability to morph according to customer demand is an important factor to profitability.
What is the best method of cultivation of Cannabis to make a methodical profit ?
The best profit model would be a indoor grow, with staggered starting and harvest cycles, on a weekly basis. This will not only utilize your energy, personnel, and extraction lab more efficiently, but also allows you to tailor downstream product offerings to consumer demand, while providing a fresh product at all times. While outdoor grows are great, they are only once a year. The stress at harvest season is tremendous, and all that supply drives prices down, at that time of year.
FogPonics is the best kept secret in the Cannabis industry
Developed by a LA entrepreneur, the vertical grow tower system provides a weekly harvest, optimizing energy, personnel, and production specifically targeting oil production. On a five week grow out cycle, FogPonics is designed for oil production with fast growth varieties like Cinderella.
Oil extraction and post production
As oil is extracted from botanicals, the end product is a substance commonly referred to as crude oil. While this material can be used for dabs, it is more likely to go into post processing for refining downstream into concentrates or other products. It is typical for a extraction system to have a complimentary post processing lab, to refine and separate the oil for consumer products.
Strategy for success
Determining your actual business model will depend on your goals and the market in your area, but we recommend the following:
1. Start a extraction facility with post-processing lab.
2. If supply is an issue, vertically integrate with a FogPonics vertical grow facility.
3. Tailor your output products to demand.
4. Start or acquire your own vape pen brand, or develop products with your concentrates.
Publication Review: 20170804-infinity-supercritical-review-cannabis-benefits
Publication Review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740396/
Andre, C. M., Hausman, J. F., & Guerriero, G. (2016). Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules. Frontiers in plant science, 7.
Cannabis plants have a lot of different types of chemicals that have been suggested to be beneficial to humans. These include cannabinoids, terpenes, and phenolic compounds.
Research has been limited due the illegality of cultivation, but more and more people are looking at the non-THC active components of the cannabis plant that seem to work together to produce a powerful entourage effect.
Phytocannabinoids are terpenophenolic compounds, meaning part terpene and part natural phenol, and over 90 different types have been found in cannabis plants or as break-down products.
The predominant compounds found in the plant in this category are quote THCA, CBDA and cannabinolic acid (CBNA), followed by cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) and cannabinodiolic acid (CBNDA) unquote.
These phytocannabinoid acids go unto a decarboxylation reaction to their corresponding neutral forms, sometimes naturally in the plant, but normally after harvesting with heat.
Most of the medicinal properties of cannabinoids come from their interactions with the endocannabinoid systems in humans.
This system is thought to quote modulate or play a regulatory role in a variety of physiological processing including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, memory, inflammation, insulin, sensitivity and fat and energy metabolism unquote.
THC, the neutral form of THCA, exhibits anti- inflammatory, anti-cancer, analgesic, muscle relaxant, neuro-antioxidative, and anti- spasmodic activities, but also has been associated with a number of side effects including anxiety, cholingeric deficits, and immunosuppression.
CBD, the neutral form of CBDA, has been shown to possess anti-anxiety, anti-nausea, anti- arthritic, anti-psychotic, anti- inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties, while also reducing THC side effects, increasing the safety of cannabis extracts.
CBC, the third most prevalent phytocannabinoid, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, sedative, analgesic, anti- bacterial, and anti-fungal properties.
CBG, the neutral form of CBGA, has been linked to possibly be beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Finally CBN, found mostly in aged cannabis due to THC degradation, has similar effects health effects to THC, but focuses more on the immune system rather than the central nervous system.
Terpenes, responsible for the odor and flavor of cannabis, form the largest group of phytochemicals with more than 100 compounds identified in cannabis.
These are split into four different groups, isoprene (5 carbons), monoterpenes (10 carbons), sesquiterpenes (15 carbons), and triterpenes (30 carbons), which are built by multiples of the isoprene unit.
Terpenes easily cross membranes like the blood-brain barrier and have numerous health benefits depending on the compound.
Beta-myrcene is a potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anxiolytic compound, alpha- pinene is an acetylcholinesteral inhibitor which means it may aid in memory abilities which could counteract memory issues arising from THC, pentacyclic tripterpenes have anti-bacterial, anti- fungal, anti- inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties, and the list continues.
The phenol compounds contain flavonoids and lignans in the cannabis plant.
Flavonoids have a wide range of biological effects and share some properties that terpenes and cannabinoids exhibit like anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuro-protective properties.
Lignans also have a wide array of properties, including having antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic, antitumorigenic, and anti-obesity activities.
Altogether, these compounds work together to produce this entourage effect. Some examples is that a full cannabis extract has a stronger muscle-antispastic effect compared to pure THC, or that CBD increases the penetration of THC in muscle cells and reduces cognitive defects, or terpenes modulated the affinity of THC as well as helping with the bioavailability of cannabinoids when transdermally applied.
Due to this synergy, it has been suggested that treatments with phytocannabinoids will contain mixes of specific cannabinoids and terpene extracts to better fight against acne, depression, anxiety, insomnia, dementia, and addiction.
Or how not to extract oils: 1. Turn up the flow. 2. Don’t collect the oils. 3. Clog your pump.
How to tell if a company hasn’t tested their equipment, or if they haven’t tested to improve yield: Claim High Flow Rate.
What’s that you say ? It’s not the flow rate that matters, it’s the permeability of the CO2 into the botanicals, and the the availability to harvest the extracted oil. Now you know more than most of the upstart CO2 Extraction companies out there.
Why ? Because we’ve tested these parameters over the past three years. If you haven’t tested your machine, then you won’t know that flow isn’t the key, and it can actually be a Pandora’s Box of bad tricks.
Permeability of Cannabis and Hemp Which Allows CO2 to Extract Oil:
It’s not the flow of the solvent (CO2), but how it interacts with the botanicals. In one example, you can have a high flow rate, and that flow goes around the outside of the Cannabis (if introduced in one end of the extraction vessel, and exits the other), which leaves the core of the botanicals under exposed to solvent. That’s why most companies reverse flow in their extraction vessel – because they have incomplete saturation or permeability. The CO2 as a solvent needs proper distribution through a batch reactor system.
Once you’ve extracted that precious oil, you need to collect it. The problem with high flow is that without a proper way to slow it down (or spin out the oil), you’re not going to collect the oil, and it’s going to blow-by your collection vessel(s) and clog your pump. How can you tell if a system that doesn’t collect oil properly ? If the pump is constantly being clogged. Solution: slow down the flow, and charge the entrained oil with a static cling, so that it does not go into the pump. We do that by ElectroStatic Precipitation (ESP). We have one customer who has run his machine on a daily basis, and hasn’t needed to clean the pump in over 2 months.
How To Insure Your Machine Runs Properly:
One word – maintenance. If you are not going to take care of your machine, I promise you it will fail, you won’t have proper extraction, or even worse, you’ll lose valuable extracts (not to mention time). Of course, it goes without saying that your operator must have proper training, and needs to run the system for success (we suggest a learning curve on high-oil-content hops). Running with this methodology gives the operator confidence, and reinforces a positive learning curve.
Pump Flow and Speed: At first we had a high flow rate, and noticed everything mentioned above. It wasn’t until we found a way to slow down the flow, and properly harvest oil, that our yield and time to process improved greatly.
It’s typical for larger vessel manufacturers (and start-ups) to boost flow, in order to compensate for improper solvent (CO2) distribution in a large vessel. Go big, or go home, right ? Wrong. You need to properly introduce and distribute the CO2 throughout all of the cannabis, to efficiently extract the oil. This can’t be done with sheer flow rate alone.
How to Spot a Start-up: Those who claim high flow rate, without any mention of how to collect the oil.
Anybody pre-buying a new unproven system (that hasn’t been tested for a good period of time), is buying a headache.
Nikola Tesla started with a theory, then tested it. That methodology worked well. We use his AC system, electric motors, and yes, he was the inventor of radio. Thomas Edison just did trial and error (thousands of times for a light bulb). Be a Tesla, not a Edison.
Test, Test, and Test: A great CO2 manufacturer will always test, and keep testing their machine. And they will always look for technology to improve its performance. A good builder will want to improve customer satisfaction, and customer experience. Testing is the only way to improve your product. This applies on the extraction process as well. Get to know your machine and test with hops. Experiment with varying pressures, temperatures, times, configurations, etc.
Extract Color: One of the good ways to see how well a extractor is performing, is to look at the extract color. For Cannabis, you want that peanut buttery, honey-like, yellow-orange color and consistency. If you are trying to extract live-resin, or other extract specific components, you may have other textures and color. But for 99 percent of you out there extracting for the vape pen and concentrate market, you want the yellow-orange color. If you are extracting a brown oil, you need to look at the temperature, pressure, or the machine parameters.
It’s not the rate of the flow that matters, it’s what you do with it:
If you have a high flow into a large batch extraction vessel, chances are good that there will be partitions in the vessel that don’t get flow, hence the term “soak” time. That is time needed to soak all of the botanicals. In a improperly designed system, a long soak time is needed to release the oil into the solvent flow stream. Smaller extraction vessels will result in even and better solvent distribution, than large batch reactors. Infinity uses a FlowBar, which is the best method to distribute the CO2 solvent along the entire length of the extraction vessel.
Flow rate doesn’t determine extraction cycle speed:
The integrated system and operator determine the run time. If your system is designed properly, the solvent (CO2) will extract the oil (with temperature and pressure) by distributing the solvent evenly through the cannabis, and (hopefully) it will be collected in the collection vessel. High flow rate can create blow-by, and the oil may end up in the pump. The operator has a huge factor in this, even in automated systems. A improperly trained operator (or no training at all), may negate any system design, and lead to a consistent failure rate, with little oil.
How Do You Spot A Improperly Designed or Operated System ?
Look for oil extract (called “carry-over”) in the pump. The leading cause of pump failure (and maintenance) is extracted oil which is not collected in the right place – the collection vessel. A poorly trained operator can foil even the smartest systems, and force oil into the pump. The three best methods to insure fast cycle and a clean running pump is to properly distribute the CO2 in the extraction vessel, harvest all the oil in the collection vessel, and have proper operator training. Infinity uses a FlowBar for proper CO2 flow, and TriboTube for electrostatic precipitation to harvest oil.
Experimentation – Repeating Success Leads to Not Duplicating Failure:
Once you have a good handle on your system operation, use a low cost, oil rich botanical to experiment with cycle times with your system. We use hops for the botanical. Always log your experiments and results. Infinity has develop a simple database log for this purpose (works with any machine). This allows you to experiment with different recipes, and see which method produces the best results. Some automated systems already have these, however the pro’s will tell you they prefer semi-automated systems so they can have more control over the cycle.
30/30 and 45/45 Cycle Experiment:
Using our FlowBar, we started to experiment with hops and a cycle time of 30 minutes on, stop the machine and remove the botanical basket, put it back in, then run for 45 minutes more. What we found was really interesting. It turns out that with proper solvent distribution, most of the oil is extracted in the first part of the cycle, or 30 to 45 minutes. If a manufacturer claims fast extraction times, ask to see testing results on the website. In the cannabis industry, there is lots of talk. Ask to see the proof.
In conclusion, don’t trust the marketing hype.
If a new system hasn’t been tested, and you don’t see run results on the website, then you’re buying a system that hasn’t been thoroughly tested. The important factor with flow is how it interacts through the cannabis to precipitate out the oil, and it has to be at a rate which can easily have the oil separated (harvested) from the CO2 in the collection vessel. If the sticky, extracted oil, makes it to the pump, then it’s too late. All of these observations can only be learned through experience, and many runs.
Distributorships Available For CO2 Extraction Systems for Cannabis and Hemp Industry
If you are considering entering the equipment side of the botanicals cannabis or hemp industry, we are now making available a distributor opportunity. This allows you to license a territory for a prepaid distributor fee (on a yearly basis).
Yearly State and Territory Distributor Fees Paid in Advance:
Infinity Supercritical is now offering the Build Your Own Brand licensing opportunity.
If you have a machine shop, or would like to brand your own Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction System for botanicals, Infinity is offering the following:
With the Build Your Own Brand licensing opportunity, you can customize the frame design and colors. The Infinity frame is completely modular and bolt-together for rapid reconfiguration.
Modular Frame: Our Caster Beam frame allows you to configure your extraction equipment in many ways.
Machining Parts: We can provide you with all the parts, or custom make parts for your system with our Vertical Milling Machine or our Omax Waterjet. We’ve already made the huge investment in the machines, now you have the opportunity to use them for your business.
Quality Extracts: The Infinity Supercritical extraction system can provide extractions from any botanicals and provides a superior product.
Web Page Design and SEO Optimization: You can buy a page on our website, or build your own website to advertising your product. We also have a page optimizing SEO algorithm using Filemaker Database which can point tens of thousands of page links to your site.
Introduction: The market segment which is making money right now is oil extraction and concentrates. This might be cannabis oil (vape pens), hemp oil (CBDs), or in the nutraceuticals industry, phenols and metabolites. The later is mainly used in the supplement industry in tablet, capsule, and concentrate form (tincture – used to drop into tea, flavor drinks, etc.).
Oil extraction is a value-added segment of the industry, which is more profitable than cultivation, due to the limited number of extractors. Lots of cultivators and large supply, drive prices down. Limited extractors, and small supply, drive prices up.
Research: The best strategy is to research and study the area you want to focus on, and which industry and consumer to target. If you focus on a niche market, you will have better results, than if you do what everyone else does.
Step 1: Identify your botanical, product, and market. What product do you want to sell, and who is going to buy it ?
Step 2: Identify attributes to your product, and benefits of the botanical. Choose a brand name.
Step 3: Establish a botanical supplier and purity. Have a certified lab test your botanical sample, and indicate pesticide free, and available oil. Negotiate your best price on the botanicals, and insist on regular sample testing, and tracking from growth, harvest, and final delivery.
Step 4: Flavinoids. Do you want your brand product to have flavor ? Botanicals are flavored by compounds called terpenes, which can be removed in the extraction process. They can even be removed, and replaced, with a different flavor (such as removing a hops taste or smell, with vanilla).
Step 5: Establish your market network. This may include direct-to-customer sales (via a website or sales agents), for non-regulated items Amazon, or through retail organizations like dispensaries.
Step 6: Source and assemble your extraction process, including the extraction equipment and any post-processing equipment needed to put the oil or concentrate into a consumer ready format (i.e. vape pens, tincture, etc.). Get competitive quotes on equipment, and go see it in operation before you buy.
Step 7: Develop a comprehensive website, which includes ordering direct, publications on the product, including any scientific research. For fast set-up, use WordPress.
Step 8: Test run your production line, and provide free samples for a limited time.
Step 9: Price your product. A brand name will command a higher price than a generic product. A niche market will also bring higher prices. Do you want a one-time sale, or offer a subscription ?
Step 10: Return on Investment feedback. Set a loop in the chain of supply and sales that allows you to capture and analyze metrics of the cost of goods versus your profit. Adjust your supplier price, and sale price accordingly.
Summary: While this is not a comprehensive list of everything that needs to be done, this will get you on the right path. These steps are merely guidelines, that can get you on the road to profit. You may need to re-number the list, according to your priority and product development. Redefining markets, customers, and profits is a dynamic strategy, since none of those factors are static. Over time, you need to constantly innovate new ways to market and develop your product for a savvy consumer.
Infinity Supercritical Botanical Oil Extraction Machine Which Uses CO2 as the Solvent
Selecting a supercritical CO2 oil extraction system can be a daunting process, given all the choices that are now available. Here is a short, but comprehensive list of important features you should be looking for.
Advantages with Infinity Supercritical CO2 Botanical Extraction Systems:
-Simplicity: because our systems are not automated, you do not have to
worry about software updates, system shutdowns (in the middle of a run
due to power failure or software hickups), or problematic pressure
-Full Automation: After consulting with more Cannabis extraction
professionals, we have decided against moving forward with full
automation. Our customers are getting such great results with a
semi-automated system, we believe it is not advantageous to deploy
fully automated PLC systems. After talking with several Apeks
customers, we do not believe that a fully automated system, is the
best choice for a production Cannabis oil operation.
-FlowBar: we distribute CO2 over the length of the extraction vessel,
and from the inside of the Cannabis to the outside. The result is a
much faster, and complete extraction. This means that you can run
through 2-4 times more cycles than with the same size competition.
With our system, you can do a extraction cycle in 1-3 hours. Faster
extraction means more profit, so your payback is even faster with our
system. To be conservative, just plan on a 3 hour extraction time, and
experiment with your actual extraction time.
-Electro-Static Precipitation System: we use the action of the CO2
flowing over food-grade Teflon to produce a passive static charge. The
tribo-effect charges the oil entrained in the CO2 gas so that it
sticks to the first contact, which is the first collection vessel.
Better collection equals less or minimal carry-over, which reduces
-Tube Size: we use 1/4 to 1/2 inch Swagelok tubes and components,
which allow better flow of the CO2.
-Silent CO2 Pump: we use a highly-modified industrial liquid CO2 pump,
which runs using a motor. Operation is silent. Our extensive
modification means very minimal maintenance, and seal replacement can
be done by removing the pump head (about 5 minutes), cleaning the
pistons (about 10 minutes), and replacing seals (about 10 minutes).
-No Noisy Air Compressor: we do not need, nor use, a external pneumatic air
compressor (or additional chiller to cool the compressor which gets
hot from use). Compressor is so loud, that most systems which require
it, will need a separate room because it’s so noisy. Noise produces
extractor technician fatigue.
-Swagelok Back Pressure Valve: we use a very precise BVP, which allows
us to achieve very accurate pressures. We do not use valveless
technology, which produces pressure swings.
-CO2 Preheat: we use a heat exchanger on our motor-to-pump gearbox,
which preheats the CO2 before it gets into the extraction vessel. By
using the heat (byproduct of the gearbox), we are conserving energy
and preheating the CO2.
-Pressure and Heat Zone Feedback PID: we use compact PLCs to control
the pressure (with a feedback loop via digital sensor) and three zone
heat monitor, control, and feedback.
-Less Complicated: the system we have is modular, on a sturdy
industrial bolt-together frame, with casters, and can be wheeled
through any standard door, hallway, or elevator. The modular cart is
24 inches wide, by 48 inches long, by 71 inches in height. You will
notice the clean lines, minimal tubing, and logical layout of the
-Less Stuff Needed to Run: our system requires a liquid CO2 supply
(cylinders), and a small chiller. That’s it. No air compressor, or
items to support that compressor.
-Quality Extract: our customers who perform extraction, say that their
ultimate customers rave about the quality and aroma of the extracted
oil. The quality terpenes that are extracted and ultimately preserved,
make the end-user experience a quality one.
-New Technology: we’re working on a solid state chiller (bolt-on),
energy saver heating/cooling technology, acoustical ultrasonics, and
other advanced technology, which not only enhance the operator
experience, but will reduce cycle time, while increasing quality of
extract. The bottom line is to save you time, and increase production,
which result in more profit. We are also working on SDR (Spinning Disc
Reactor) technology which will allow continuous flow processing, and
without pressure or CO2.
For more information, please visit: http://www.infinitysupercritical.com
For extraction supplies, including chillers, rotovap, distillation, and vape pen supplies: Click here
PDF Download Link: 20170206-infinity-supercritical-flash-chromatography
Distillation is commonly used to purify and separate liquids. In the Cannabis industry, this is typically done by thin film or simple distillation, which uses heat to vaporize (evaporate) components, which are then condensed into fractions. Those fractions (THC, CBD, and Terpenes) can then be recombined for a recipe, or signature oil which can be used for concentrates (edibles) or vape pens. The new technique is called Flash Chromatography. http://www.biotage.com/news/effective-cannabinoid-purification-by-flash-chromatography
What is Flash Chromatography ?
Flash chromatography is a method to easily separate complex mixtures of compounds. It is based on column chromatography, which is a technique to purify (separate) compounds based on polarity and hydrophobicity. Separate occurs between differential partitioning between mobile and stationary phase. Introduce a liquid (Cannabis oil extract) and this separation technique will result in THC, Cannabinoids, and Terpenes.
How Can I Use This In My Extraction Process ?
If you already have a CO2 extraction system, you will need to winterize your crude oil, then it will be ready for Flash Chromatography. As you identify the components to separate, the machine will automatically identify and then target components to separate into different vials. You can then recombine these separations in to recipes (for example, 10 percent THC, 85 percent CBD, and 5 percent terpenes). Using this method you can make custom vape pens, or concentrates.
How to Break Down Cell Walls:
-Grinding: Mortar and pestle, which is often done with plants frozen in liquid nitrogen.
-Beadbeating: Cracking open cells using ceramic or glass beads, typically done in suspension and in a vortex.
-Sonification: Using ultrasound with plant matter in a solution, by cavitation shockwave. -Homogenizer: Shear force by forcing cells through tubes smaller than cells, by rotor- stator (rotating blade) or outer layer shear (French Press).
-Freezing: Cell rupture from freeze thaw process. Can take lots of time.
-High Temperature (and Pressure): Cells walls are disrupted, but denatures proteins, and heat can damage cell contents. Typically by autoclave, microwave, steam, etc.
-Enzymes: Remove cell wall by using naturally occurring enzymes.
-Chemicals: Organic solvents like ethanol (alcohol), especially for hydrophobic (doesn’t like water) molecules. Commonly used with shearing forces.
-Bacteria: EDTA, negative bacteria, to chelate cations that bore holes in cell walls.
REF: http://bitesizebio.com/13536/bringing- down-the-walls-part-ii-8-methods-to-break- down-cell-walls/
Cell Lysis Methods:
Reagent Based Methods:
-Fast, efficient, reproducible
-Can extract total protein or subcellular fractions
-Disrupts cell wall and or lipid membrane
-Larger footprint for equipment
-Not compatible with high-throughput and small volumes
-Aggregation and denaturation of protein may occur
-Cells disrupt at different times
REF: https://www.thermofisher. com/us/en/home/life-science/protein- biology/protein-biology-learning- center/protein-biology-resource-library/pierce- protein-methods/traditional-methods-cell-
Tensile Strength of Cell Walls
Cylindrical Cell Shape: 100 atm or 1,470 psi
Spherical Cell Shape: 95 atm or 1,396 psi
Spherical Cell Shape: 30 atm or 441 psi
REF: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1074911/pdf/plntphys0 0593-0165.pdf
Plant Cell Vacuoles
The central vacuole (may be 80 percent of space) is a membrane bound sac which provides cell support and helps the plant function with growth.
Turgor Pressure: Vacuoles help to maintain and control the rigidity of the cell (structure),
by compensating the osmotic pressure from within the cell and pressure exerted from outside the cell.
Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules
Cell Disruption Using a Microfluidizer
Using a Microfluidizer versus a French Press using the same 20,000 psi back pressure, resulted in 92 percent breakage in 8 passes, versus only 50 percent breakge for the French Press in 7 passes.
REF: https://www.microfluidicscorp.com/sites/default/files/application-note-cell- disruption-publication-summaries.pdf
Practical Use of Continuous Processing in Developing and Scaling Up Laboratory Processes
Continuous flow reactors allow for better control of exothermic processing than do batch reactions, and allow for a more efficient and safe scale-up of rapid reactions in a smaller footprint.
REF: http://pubs.acs. org/doi/abs/10.1021/op0100605? journalCode=oprdfk