What is a Spinning Disc Reactor ? Why is it important in Green Chemistry ?

Spinning Disc Reactor | Green Chemistry | Applications:  20171103-infinitysupercritical-spinning-disc-reactor-research

What is a Spinning Disc Reactor ? A SDR is a device which uses a spinning disc, typically in proximity of a stationary surface, to accelerate flow in a centrifugal manner. The components of which activates the flow (which is typically a liquid), to mix, agitate, shear, produce cavitation (vacuum), and produce temperature change, under the influence of boundary layer rotation. One of the main mechanisms at work here is called sonochemistry (producing ultrasonics by forming acoustical cavitation in liquids – which results in chemical activity). For example, when you cavitate water, you get a energy burst which includes UV light, heat, and sound. Also known as a shock wave.

Shock Waves and MicroJets:

A good example is cavitation in water. The spinning disc creates voids which collapse (and implode) that produces a shock wave. The resulting microjet produces thousands of psi of pressure.

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.03972.pdf

The SDR is unique, in that it provides a multifunctional platform, which allows the processor to control the flow acceleration by RPM, and flow temperature by adding or subtracting heat from the unit. Co-solvents, or other compounds can be added to the flow.

 

Configuration of a Spinning Disc Reactor

Rotors and stators can be rapidly reconfigured to stage pumping, mixing, shearing, extraction, and also provide a platform for complex chemical reactions, such as the production of Quantum Dots (QD). Take multiple chemical components within a liquid, best shows the incredible flexibility of the spinning disc reactor. While the reactions can be very complex, the mechanism to produce those reactions is very basic, and can be done under 4,000 RPM. Best of all, since reactions are very localized, the device is not considered a pressure vessel.

Micromixing Efficiency of a Spinning Disk Reactor

“The use of the spinning disk technology enables one to produce particles continuously

with controllable mean sizes down to 27 nm, without the risk of fouling or blocking.”

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ie300411b

Ultra-wetting graphene-based PES ultrafiltration membrane – A novel approach for successful oil-water separation

“More importantly, the water permeability increased by 43 percent with greater than 99 percent selectivity. Based on our findings, we believe that the development of PES-G- PANCMI membrane will open up a solution for successful oil-water separation.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/305486217_Ultra- wetting_graphene- based_PES_ultrafiltration_membrane_- _A_novel_approach_for_successful_oil- water_separation

Higee technologies and their applications to green intensified processing

“…technologies which involve the application of high gravity fields, typically in the order of 100-1000g, in order to intensify dynamics, mixing and heat mass transfer in processing fluids.. such as spinning disc reactor (SDR) and rotating packed beds (RPB)… and rotor- stator SDR (RSSDR) … and rotating zig-zag bed (RZB) for achieving green processing benefits.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/308404045_Higee_technologi es_and_their_applications_to_green_intensifi ed_processing

A Taylor Vortex Photocatalytic Reactor for Water Purification

Flow evolution in a spinning disc reactor can result in very high overall efficiency of photocatalytic conversion. Centrifugal instability results in pollutant degradation.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ie001120i

Coal yields production of graphene quantum dots at Rice University

“The Rice lab of chemist James Tour found simple methods to reduce three kinds of coal into graphene quantum dots (GQDs), microscopic discs of atom-thick graphene oxide that could be used in medical imaging as well as sensing, electronic and photovoltaic applications. ”

From coal comes 20 percent yield graphene quantum dots. Non-toxic and fluoresce.

Evaluation of a Spinning Disc Reactor for Continuous Processing
“As part of an evaluation of equipment aimed at process intensification, use of a continuously operating spinning disc reactor (SDR) was investigated. Results obtained for two organic reactions and one crystallization are discussed. The SDR was found to be a useful tool for revealing intrinsically fast kinetics as well as for optimizing a process with such kinetics. Control of particle size distribution was demonstrated with the crystallization investigated.”

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op0000834

Optimization of Biodiesel production in Spinning disc Reactor using Response Surface Methodology

“Spinning disc reactor have been fabricated and used for continuous alkali-catalyzed transesterification biodiesel production. The reactor was designed with a 110 mm diameter circular disc made of stainless steel as a static disc and another disc of same dimension made up of high density polyethylene to serve as rotating disc, enclosed on cylindrical vessel made of plexiglass.”

http://www.journalijar. com/article/5096/optimization-of-biodiesel- production-in-spinning-disc-reactor-using- response-surface-methodology/

CFD Numerical Simulation of Biodiesel Synthesis in a Spinning Disc Reactor

“In this paper a two-disc spinning disc reactor for intensified biodiesel synthesis is described and numerically simulated. The reactor consists of two flat discs, located coaxially and parallel to each other with a gap of 0.2 mm between the discs. The upper disc is located on a rotating shaft while the lower disc is stationary. The feed liquids, triglycerides (TG) and methanol are introduced coaxially along the centre line of rotating disc and stationary disc. .”

http://psjd.icm.edu.pl/psjd/element/bwmeta1. element.-psjd-doi-10_1515_cpe-2015-0002

The use of spinning disc reactor for processing ice cream base – effect of ageing in making model ice cream

“The results reveal that the SDR is capable of producing a highly stable ice cream base that requires significantly less ageing than the 18 h typically associated with the traditional process of making ice cream. The SDR process provides intense mixing of ingredients which facilitates the hydration of milk proteins and stabilizers.”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.01934. x/full

Spinning Disc Reactors -A novel processing machine for the food and chemical industry

“Ability to very rapidly heat and cool fluids, especially viscous fluids; pasteurization, fine crystal formation. Very low delta T gives less thermal damage. Self-cleaning easy clean characteristic, enhanced mass transfer for evaporation and odor removal with less thermal damage. Effective use of UV radiation (sunshine treated!) Unique combination of shear and draw gives opportunities for structure manipulation”

http://www.flandersfood. com/sites/default/files/ct_bestand/10/10/21/5 %20FFTD%20Henderson%20.pdf

Concentration of Apple Juice Using Spinning Disc Reactor Technology

“The SDR-made reconstituted apple juices are comparable to both the original pure- pressed apple juice sample and the commercial reconstituted product… It can be concluded that this novel SDR technology is capable of producing apple juice concentrates efficiently without compromising the quality of the juice products. ”

https://www.omicsonline.org/concentration-of- apple-juice-using-spinning-disc-reactor- technology-2157-7110.1000108.php? aid=1136

Shear Assisted Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite to Graphene

“Our findings on the crucial role of hydrodynamics in accentuating the exfoliation efficiency suggest a safer, greener, and more automated method for production of high quality graphene from graphite.”

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b04209?journalCode=langd5

Simple and Large-Scale Strategy to Prepare Flexible Graphene Tape Electrode

When the SDR is used to produce nanoparticles and graphite, the resulting powder can be used with various techniques to apply graphene to make printable electrodes. The technique is as simple as using acrylic transparent tape, and peeling away the tape from graphite foil.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsami.6b14624

Green Reactors

“The advantages and disadvantages and the and design parameters that need to be considered when selecting microreactors to achieve process intensification (PI) are discussed. Oscillatory flow mixing (OFM) reactor, which includes oscillation of fluids using an external oscillator, is characterized by plug-flow RTD, high heat transfer, and short reaction times.  A plate-type reactor combines the high-heat- transfer capabilities of plate heat exchangers with the mixing of microreactors into a single unit, and is designed such that reactants can be injected at different locations along the flow path. The spinning tube-in-a-tube (STT) reactor is capable of creating sub- Kolmogoroff and near-Kolmogoroff eddies, which can reduce reaction time. The spinning disc reactor (SDR) has a very small reactor holdup, such that very hazardous reactions can also be carried out.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/282297425_Green_reactors

Summary

The spinning disc reactor (SDR) is an amazing device that has a small footprint with large mixing and chemical reaction potential. The primary benefits of using a SDR are the small size, complex mixing, shear, and sonochemistry reactions which can be performed in a non pressurized device. Using a liquid medium, such as water, can produce shock waves (and resulting microjets) which provide thousands of pounds of pressure within a very small space, to carry out reactions.

Compressed Air Botanical Oil Extraction

 

Compressed Air Botanical Extraction Testing – Cascade Hops

 

Compressed Air Botanical Extraction Testing – Water Vortex

 

Photos of Prototype Test Stand With Compressed Air Botanical Extraction

 

https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/08/18/1090008/0/en/Infinity-Supercritical-Announces-Advanced-Organic-Method-of-Botanical-Oil-Extraction-Using-Compressed-Air.html

Infinity Supercritical Announces Advanced Organic Method of Botanical Oil Extraction Using Compressed Air

Patent Pending
Benefits Corporate Cannabis and Hemp Industry

Infinity Supercritical LLC, a leading manufacturer of botanical extraction equipment, announces the industry’s first organic method of oil extraction using compressed air as the solvent.

The new method involves a compressed air extraction system which is being introduced into the industry for the extraction of oil from cannabis and CBDs from hemp. The oil extract, called a concentrate, can  be used in vape pens, edibles, and further processed into CBDs for medical and health purposes as tablets or capsules. The system can also be used for other botanicals, which have medicinal benefits, such as ginger, oregano, lavender, and other nutraceuticals that have a medicinal action in humans and animals, since they contain phytochemicals, and metabolites.

The system is so efficient that the process takes a few seconds, instead of hours or days, which is common in the industry now which used batch systems. In addition, the system uses only compressed air as the solvent, instead of commonly used CO2, ethanol (alcohol), or butane.

With a continuous feed system, different botanicals or varieties can be processed on-the-fly. Legacy batch systems can only process one botanical or variety at a time.

The equipment is modular and can be scaled up to any size. As a continuous feed, continuous flow process, batch systems are now obsolete. The smaller footprint results in lower initial acquisition, maintenance, and operational costs. The added benefit of a smaller continuous feed system is more efficient use of energy. No large liquid or gas storage is required, as with batch systems. Clean filtered air can be produced on-site.

This process technology can also be used in other industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, nutraceuticals, and algae oil extraction. The system can also be used for mixing or separating gas streams, such as separating CO2 from other gases.

Infinity Supercritical LLC develops and markets innovative botanical oil extraction systems. Emphasis is placed on developing new technology to reduce extraction time, and producing a superior oil product, maximizing extracted antioxidants, terpenes, and nutraceuticals. Industries served include cannabis, hemp, oregano, and hops.

Please visit http://www.infinitysupercritical.com for more information.


	

Infinity Supercritical Announces Advanced Organic Method of Botanical Oil Extraction Using Compressed Air

https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/08/18/1090008/0/en/Infinity-Supercritical-Announces-Advanced-Organic-Method-of-Botanical-Oil-Extraction-Using-Compressed-Air.html

Infinity Supercritical Announces Advanced Organic Method of Botanical Oil Extraction Using Compressed Air

Patent Pending
Benefits Corporate Cannabis and Hemp Industry

SEATTLE, Aug. 18, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Infinity Supercritical LLC, a leading manufacturer of botanical extraction equipment, announces the industry’s first organic method of oil extraction using compressed air as the solvent.

The new method involves a compressed air extraction system which is being introduced into the industry for the extraction of oil from cannabis and CBDs from hemp. The oil extract, called a concentrate, can  be used in vape pens, edibles, and further processed into CBDs for medical and health purposes as tablets or capsules. The system can also be used for other botanicals, which have medicinal benefits, such as ginger, oregano, lavender, and other nutraceuticals that have a medicinal action in humans and animals, since they contain phytochemicals, and metabolites.

The system is so efficient that the process takes a few seconds, instead of hours or days, which is common in the industry now which used batch systems. In addition, the system uses only compressed air as the solvent, instead of commonly used CO2, ethanol (alcohol), or butane.

With a continuous feed system, different botanicals or varieties can be processed on-the-fly. Legacy batch systems can only process one botanical or variety at a time.

The equipment is modular and can be scaled up to any size. As a continuous feed, continuous flow process, batch systems are now obsolete. The smaller footprint results in lower initial acquisition, maintenance, and operational costs. The added benefit of a smaller continuous feed system is more efficient use of energy. No large liquid or gas storage is required, as with batch systems. Clean filtered air can be produced on-site.

This process technology can also be used in other industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, nutraceuticals, and algae oil extraction. The system can also be used for mixing or separating gas streams, such as separating CO2 from other gases.

Infinity Supercritical LLC develops and markets innovative botanical oil extraction systems. Emphasis is placed on developing new technology to reduce extraction time, and producing a superior oil product, maximizing extracted antioxidants, terpenes, and nutraceuticals. Industries served include cannabis, hemp, oregano, and hops.

Please visit http://www.infinitysupercritical.com for more information.

Infinity Supercritical LLC | TEL (720) 541-9113 | greg@infinitysupercritical.com

Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles In A Spinning Disc Reactor

Technology Review of Spinning Disc Reacor | Blog | Industry Series | July 2017

20170727-infininty-supercritical-review-sdr-nanoparticles

 

Review: Mohammadi, S., Harvey, A., & Boodhoo, K. V. (2014). Synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a spinning disc reactor. Chemical Engineering Journal, 258, 171-184.

A spinning disc reactor (SDR) is a reactor where reactants are injected onto the surface of a rotating disc, which creates a centrifugal force pushing the liquid out to the ends of the reactor where it exits at the bottom of the reactor.

The pros of such a reactor are that: the disc and walls can be temperature controlled, additional pipes can inject catalysts (particles in a slurry, or as a gas), pressure can be controlled, it is continuous flow, and that the disc creates a very interesting dynamic on the reaction, all allowing for a high level of process control and thus selectivity in the reaction.

It has been shown that SDR’s can be used to make quantum dots, or semiconductor nanoparticles. This paper summary of the precipitation synthesis of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with an SDR will highlight some of the advantages to using an SDR for this purpose.

 

Nanoparticle TiO2 has many uses from being used as a pigment or catalyst, to being used in pharmaceutical products or surface coatings.

Traditionally it is made uses a sulphate or chloride process, both considered very toxic for the environment due to their waste products, but can be made through a synthetic route with adequate process control.

SDRs have been focused on recently due to their quote ability to provide a uniform and rapid micromixing environment when two liquid streams are contacted on the rotating surface unquote.

Micromixing relates to when two liquids are contacted on the disc and the extreme centrifugal force creates a thin-film region of intense heat and mass transfer.

In nanoparticle precipitation processes, micromixing is incredibly important because it allows for control of the supersaturation of the medium, a key parameter in the nucleation process.

Micromixing also gives control of the molecular diffusion which is a key parameter in the growth process of the crystals. SDRs also create near ideal plug flow conditions which helps produce quote much more well defined crystals unquote.

Finally, the operating costs of an SDR are usually much less than the operating costs of similarly continuously mixed reactors.

The production of these TiO2 nanoparticles follow two simultaneous reactions, first the hydrolysis of titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) with acidic water and then the polycondensation of the resulting titanium tetrahydroxide using nitric acid as a catalyst.

Four different factors were considered in this experiment, the rotational speed of the disc, the total flow rate, the grooved nature of the disc, and the ratio of water to precursor.

First, the rotational speed of the disc from 400rpm to 1200rpm produce vast differences in both particle size, where 400rpms producing an average particle size of ~16nm while 1200rpms created an average size of ~4.8nm, and particle size distribution, where 400rpms produced a range of particle sizes of 18nm and 1200rpms produced a range of particle sizes of 3nm.

This result was found to be due to the micromixing effect causing a high uniform distribution of supersaturation in the higher rpms.

Second, at higher flow rates smaller sized particles and more uniform sizing distribution

were found due to a similar effect to the higher rotational speed, where a higher flow rate causes more surface ripples, meaning better mixing of the precursors and thus a favoring of nucleation vs crystal growth.

Third, this effect was again seen with the grooved disc preforming vastly better than the smooth disc in producing smaller and more uniformly sized particles.

Finally, a higher ratio of water to the precursor TTIP produced more uniform, smaller, and spherical in nature particles compared to less uniform, larger, and irregular particles with lower ratios.

 

This effect is due to the nucleation reaction being increased with higher water concentrations due to its large role in the hydrolysis reaction.

Comparing the SDR to more traditionally stirred reactors, the power consumption per particle was lower, the particle size was lower, and the particle size distribution was tighter in the SDR.

In conclusion, a SDR has many advantages over conventionally stirred reactors in the production of TiO2 nanoparticles and these advantages could possibly be applied to the production of other quantum dot particles.

Source:

Authors: Mohammadi, S., Harvey, A., & Boodhoo, K. V. (2014).

Title: Synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a spinning disc reactor.

Publication: Chemical Engineering Journal, 258, 171-184.

Infinity Supercritical Introduces New Ultra-Efficient Organic Method of Botanical Oil Extraction

Press Release PDF

SEATTLE, June 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Infinity Supercritical LLC, a leading manufacturer of botanical extraction equipment, announces the industry’s first organic method of oil extraction using distilled water as the solvent.

The new method involves a spinning disc reactor system which is being introduced into the industry for the extraction of oil from cannabis and hemp. The oil extract, called a concentrate, can be used in vape pens, edibles, and further processed into CBDs for medical and health purposes.

The system is so efficient that the process takes a few seconds, instead of hours or days, which is common in the industry now. In addition, the system uses distilled water as the solvent, instead of commonly used CO2, ethanol, or butane.

With a continuous feed system, different botanicals or varieties can be processed on-the-fly. Legacy batch systems can only process one botanical or variety at a time.

The equipment is modular and can be scaled up to any size. As a continuous feed, continuous flow process, batch systems are now obsolete. The smaller footprint results in lower initial acquisition, maintenance, and operational costs. The added benefit of a smaller continuous feed system is more efficient use of energy.

This process technology can also be used in other industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, nutraceuticals, and algae oil extraction. In the high-tech sector, the process can produce quantum dots, which have been identified as a future solar cell technology. With a spinning disc reactor, (SDR) perovskites can be commercially manufactured, with a low cost, continuous feed, production format, which can then be used for continuous, printable, flexible, thin film solar cells.

Infinity Supercritical LLC develops and markets innovative botanical oil extraction systems. Emphasis is placed on developing new technology to reduce extraction time, and producing a superior oil product, maximizing extracted antioxidants, terpenes, and nutrients. Industries served include cannabis, hemp, and hops. Please visit http://www.infinitysupercritical.com for more information.

 

 

400L Industrial Botanicals Extractor by Infinity

Infinity Supercritical is developing a 400L (100+ lbs/hr) industrial botanicals extraction system. This system uses common distilled water as the solvent, which provides a completely hydrocarbon or CO2 solvent free extraction method, which is the first organic extraction method to be introduced into the Cannabis industry.

The system is closed-loop and recycles the distilled water through a series of elegant, but simple, mechanical separation methods. The spent botanicals can be recycled and composed, or remediated through a add-on module which converts the plant matter to CO2 by using a patented system.

The system has other add-on high-tech innovation modules which can recover waste heat into electricity (Tribogen), a solid state chiller, ESP (electrostatic precipitation), and a Tesla disc pump. The system was developed, and uses the modular fluid handling device (US Patent 7726331), which is commonly referred to as the Modular Block, which was termed an industrial Lego by the National Science Foundation.

The modular system has a ROI payback within days, when used for processing legal Cannabis trim in a licensed facility.

The system can also be used for the continuous production of QD (Quantum Dots) which may be our future solar cell and battery technology. These are the same technologies that are being looked at and developed by Apple, Google, and Tesla.

 

Infinity Supercritical Introduces Industry First: Organic Botanical Oil Extraction

20170611-infinity-supercritical-organic-oil-extraction

Infinity is pleased to announce and industry first – organic oil extraction which does not use Butane or CO2. Using a food industry proven method called SDR (Spinning Disc Reactor), botanical oil can now be extracted at room pressure and temperature.

The benefits of a SDR system developed by Infinity Supercritical LLC (patented) are:

• Standard Room Temperature and Pressure Extraction

• Fast Reaction Time (measured in seconds)

• Continuous Feed Operation

• Uses Standard Distilled Water

• Organic Extraction (no additives to remove later)

• Industrial Volume Extraction (5-100+ lbs of input material per hour)

• Modular Compact System (can be built into a trailer or standard shipping container)

• Push Button Operation (no complex PLC or operator technique required – it just works)

The SDR can also be used in other industries, including the production of semi-conductor nanocrystals called Quantum Dots (QD).

This new systems provides a quantum leap forward in options available to botanical extraction production, by simplifying extraction technique (push a button) and monitor the continuous feed and flow. If Apple were to design a botanicals extraction system, this would be it.

 

 

 

Disc Reactor | Continuous Feed | Oil Extraction System

New technology has developed into continuous flow disc fluid extraction. As an alternative to butane extraction (BHO) and Supercritical CO2, the continuous flow oil extraction kit (oil extraction machine), can efficiently produce vape pen oil extraction by co2 liquid or other fluid carriers (including water). Botanical oil extractions include beer Citra Hop oil extraction, Cacao nut oil, Tamanu Oil, antioxidants, including extracts from jellyfish, algae, and marine life like Salmon (polyphenols, astaxanthin). Other nutraceuticals are also good for oil extraction. There are also some efforts regarding extraction of Māmalu o Wahine (the mushroom Dictyophora species commonly referred to as stinkhorn)

How it works: The disc reactor spins a slurry of liquid and particulates, and uses cavitation and shear forces to break apart botanicals to extract oil and other compounds. More complicated reactions can also be introduced using sonochemistry, which can provide exothermic reactions (UV, heat, mixing, and catalytic reactions), catalysts, or co-solvents. Because of the shear forces, the extraction time can be reduced from hours to minutes. Most systems can provide a closed-loop or continuous feed, which allows larger processing operations.

The same spinning disc reactor, can be used to produce quantum dots. With a SDR, perovskites can be commercially manufactured, with a low cost, continuous feed, production format (and made into solar cells).

Website: https://sonicextractor.com/

sonic-extractor-micro
Experimental Sonic Reactor Clocked at 3,000 RPM With Magnetic Drive
concept
SRmini Magnetic Gearbox Cut-Away View
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Large Multi Channel Modular Block Reactor
mfhstack
Sonic Reactor Disc Stack
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Miniature Modular Block Sonic Reactor Experimental Platform Using SP76 Nessi Blocks

 

co2t_lco2_pump_assembly_exp_20121023
Sonic Reactor Exploded Assembly View

 

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Sonic Reactor View of Complex Disc Stack With Internal Cooling
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Inside View of a Disc Reactor