What is a Spinning Disc Reactor ? Why is it important in Green Chemistry ?

Spinning Disc Reactor | Green Chemistry | Applications:  20171103-infinitysupercritical-spinning-disc-reactor-research

What is a Spinning Disc Reactor ? A SDR is a device which uses a spinning disc, typically in proximity of a stationary surface, to accelerate flow in a centrifugal manner. The components of which activates the flow (which is typically a liquid), to mix, agitate, shear, produce cavitation (vacuum), and produce temperature change, under the influence of boundary layer rotation. One of the main mechanisms at work here is called sonochemistry (producing ultrasonics by forming acoustical cavitation in liquids – which results in chemical activity). For example, when you cavitate water, you get a energy burst which includes UV light, heat, and sound. Also known as a shock wave.

Shock Waves and MicroJets:

A good example is cavitation in water. The spinning disc creates voids which collapse (and implode) that produces a shock wave. The resulting microjet produces thousands of psi of pressure.


The SDR is unique, in that it provides a multifunctional platform, which allows the processor to control the flow acceleration by RPM, and flow temperature by adding or subtracting heat from the unit. Co-solvents, or other compounds can be added to the flow.


Configuration of a Spinning Disc Reactor

Rotors and stators can be rapidly reconfigured to stage pumping, mixing, shearing, extraction, and also provide a platform for complex chemical reactions, such as the production of Quantum Dots (QD). Take multiple chemical components within a liquid, best shows the incredible flexibility of the spinning disc reactor. While the reactions can be very complex, the mechanism to produce those reactions is very basic, and can be done under 4,000 RPM. Best of all, since reactions are very localized, the device is not considered a pressure vessel.

Micromixing Efficiency of a Spinning Disk Reactor

“The use of the spinning disk technology enables one to produce particles continuously

with controllable mean sizes down to 27 nm, without the risk of fouling or blocking.”


Ultra-wetting graphene-based PES ultrafiltration membrane – A novel approach for successful oil-water separation

“More importantly, the water permeability increased by 43 percent with greater than 99 percent selectivity. Based on our findings, we believe that the development of PES-G- PANCMI membrane will open up a solution for successful oil-water separation.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/305486217_Ultra- wetting_graphene- based_PES_ultrafiltration_membrane_- _A_novel_approach_for_successful_oil- water_separation

Higee technologies and their applications to green intensified processing

“…technologies which involve the application of high gravity fields, typically in the order of 100-1000g, in order to intensify dynamics, mixing and heat mass transfer in processing fluids.. such as spinning disc reactor (SDR) and rotating packed beds (RPB)… and rotor- stator SDR (RSSDR) … and rotating zig-zag bed (RZB) for achieving green processing benefits.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/308404045_Higee_technologi es_and_their_applications_to_green_intensifi ed_processing

A Taylor Vortex Photocatalytic Reactor for Water Purification

Flow evolution in a spinning disc reactor can result in very high overall efficiency of photocatalytic conversion. Centrifugal instability results in pollutant degradation.


Coal yields production of graphene quantum dots at Rice University

“The Rice lab of chemist James Tour found simple methods to reduce three kinds of coal into graphene quantum dots (GQDs), microscopic discs of atom-thick graphene oxide that could be used in medical imaging as well as sensing, electronic and photovoltaic applications. ”

From coal comes 20 percent yield graphene quantum dots. Non-toxic and fluoresce.

Evaluation of a Spinning Disc Reactor for Continuous Processing
“As part of an evaluation of equipment aimed at process intensification, use of a continuously operating spinning disc reactor (SDR) was investigated. Results obtained for two organic reactions and one crystallization are discussed. The SDR was found to be a useful tool for revealing intrinsically fast kinetics as well as for optimizing a process with such kinetics. Control of particle size distribution was demonstrated with the crystallization investigated.”


Optimization of Biodiesel production in Spinning disc Reactor using Response Surface Methodology

“Spinning disc reactor have been fabricated and used for continuous alkali-catalyzed transesterification biodiesel production. The reactor was designed with a 110 mm diameter circular disc made of stainless steel as a static disc and another disc of same dimension made up of high density polyethylene to serve as rotating disc, enclosed on cylindrical vessel made of plexiglass.”

http://www.journalijar. com/article/5096/optimization-of-biodiesel- production-in-spinning-disc-reactor-using- response-surface-methodology/

CFD Numerical Simulation of Biodiesel Synthesis in a Spinning Disc Reactor

“In this paper a two-disc spinning disc reactor for intensified biodiesel synthesis is described and numerically simulated. The reactor consists of two flat discs, located coaxially and parallel to each other with a gap of 0.2 mm between the discs. The upper disc is located on a rotating shaft while the lower disc is stationary. The feed liquids, triglycerides (TG) and methanol are introduced coaxially along the centre line of rotating disc and stationary disc. .”

http://psjd.icm.edu.pl/psjd/element/bwmeta1. element.-psjd-doi-10_1515_cpe-2015-0002

The use of spinning disc reactor for processing ice cream base – effect of ageing in making model ice cream

“The results reveal that the SDR is capable of producing a highly stable ice cream base that requires significantly less ageing than the 18 h typically associated with the traditional process of making ice cream. The SDR process provides intense mixing of ingredients which facilitates the hydration of milk proteins and stabilizers.”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.01934. x/full

Spinning Disc Reactors -A novel processing machine for the food and chemical industry

“Ability to very rapidly heat and cool fluids, especially viscous fluids; pasteurization, fine crystal formation. Very low delta T gives less thermal damage. Self-cleaning easy clean characteristic, enhanced mass transfer for evaporation and odor removal with less thermal damage. Effective use of UV radiation (sunshine treated!) Unique combination of shear and draw gives opportunities for structure manipulation”

http://www.flandersfood. com/sites/default/files/ct_bestand/10/10/21/5 %20FFTD%20Henderson%20.pdf

Concentration of Apple Juice Using Spinning Disc Reactor Technology

“The SDR-made reconstituted apple juices are comparable to both the original pure- pressed apple juice sample and the commercial reconstituted product… It can be concluded that this novel SDR technology is capable of producing apple juice concentrates efficiently without compromising the quality of the juice products. ”

https://www.omicsonline.org/concentration-of- apple-juice-using-spinning-disc-reactor- technology-2157-7110.1000108.php? aid=1136

Shear Assisted Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite to Graphene

“Our findings on the crucial role of hydrodynamics in accentuating the exfoliation efficiency suggest a safer, greener, and more automated method for production of high quality graphene from graphite.”


Simple and Large-Scale Strategy to Prepare Flexible Graphene Tape Electrode

When the SDR is used to produce nanoparticles and graphite, the resulting powder can be used with various techniques to apply graphene to make printable electrodes. The technique is as simple as using acrylic transparent tape, and peeling away the tape from graphite foil.


Green Reactors

“The advantages and disadvantages and the and design parameters that need to be considered when selecting microreactors to achieve process intensification (PI) are discussed. Oscillatory flow mixing (OFM) reactor, which includes oscillation of fluids using an external oscillator, is characterized by plug-flow RTD, high heat transfer, and short reaction times.  A plate-type reactor combines the high-heat- transfer capabilities of plate heat exchangers with the mixing of microreactors into a single unit, and is designed such that reactants can be injected at different locations along the flow path. The spinning tube-in-a-tube (STT) reactor is capable of creating sub- Kolmogoroff and near-Kolmogoroff eddies, which can reduce reaction time. The spinning disc reactor (SDR) has a very small reactor holdup, such that very hazardous reactions can also be carried out.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/282297425_Green_reactors


The spinning disc reactor (SDR) is an amazing device that has a small footprint with large mixing and chemical reaction potential. The primary benefits of using a SDR are the small size, complex mixing, shear, and sonochemistry reactions which can be performed in a non pressurized device. Using a liquid medium, such as water, can produce shock waves (and resulting microjets) which provide thousands of pounds of pressure within a very small space, to carry out reactions.

Infinity Supercritical Introduces 1.5 L

Infinity Supercritical is pleased to announce the availability of a 1.5 L Supercritical CO2 Extraction System. The system has one extraction vessel, with 1,500 cc of volume (1.5 Liter), which is anywhere from 1/4 to 1/2 lb. of botanicals (depending on density of botanical). The system shares the same frame and many components as the 10L system, but has a reduced volume extraction and collection vessel. Introductory price is set at $29,000. The system features FlowBar for fast extractions (.5-3 hours), and TriboTube electrostatic collection system. The 2,000 psi closed-loop system is now available, and is built in about 2 weeks from time of order. The system is semi-automated, with set-it-and-forget-it pressure and temperature zones. The pressure and temperature will automatically maintain settings, once set. The system can be used for Cannabis, Hemp, Oregano, Lavender, Ginseng, Hops, and other botanical oil extracts. System is great for smaller runs, testing botanical oil content and active components, etc.

The Cannabis Industry: Money Maker or Myth ? Who is actually making Money.

PDF Review: 20171027-infinity-supercritical-cannabis-industry-profit-myth

Profit or Promise ? In the past three years, we’ve worked in the Cannabis and Hemp Industry, and would like to ask the question, “Who is actually making a profit – the small entrepreneur, or big corporate ?”

All you see on the news, online, and in print media is the hordes of cash, and instant millionaires. But is it true ? It’s a difficult question to answer, since the industry is still very secretive, and coming out of the black and grey market.

In this review, we’ll start with the status quo, then look at the industry and who is making money.

The Addiction Industry

As with any Gold Rush (and the Cannabis industry is no different) there is the promise of fast wealth, and lots of cash. The reality is that lots of cash is just cash flow. Most groups in the industry have negative cash flow. Most so-called consultants are more myth propagators, than profit instigators. Many in the industry unfortunately only exasperate and perpetuate the myth, and enable well-meaning entrepreneurs to spend more cash, instead of tried-and-true profit making procedures. The logic here is you need to spend more, to earn more. But in reality, it doesn’t work that way.


Tricks of the Trade

If you’ve sold equipment, or have worked with the less-than-professional people in the industry, here is what you can expect. It’s right out of the addictions playbook. It includes trying to manipulate, distract, doubt, and display behavior that is unlike anything you’ve seen.

Here is a list the red flags that you are working with a nonprofessional, that is wielding the addictions behavioral sword, and how to work with this group of people.


Red Flags:

It’s Your Problem, Not Mine: It’s not untypical for the nonprofessional to blame others for their problems. If something is not working to their liking, the first line of defenses is a good offense, and that is to make the problem, your problem.

The best response is to clearly explain (written is best) and outline to the individual expectations, procedures, and a clear path of success. If the individual does not follow those guidelines, then they can expect to fail. It’s almost like coaching. Offer help and assistance, but recognize when people refuse to listen to directions, and point that out.

It’s a Warranty Issue: “Something is wrong with your product.”

This is probably the most typical statement you’ll get, when people want something free.

The first knee-jerk reaction for a nonprofessional, is to look everywhere, but from within. Greed based businesses have little time for learning, training, operations, or listening to good advice.

Your best response is to make training mandatory, and part of the warranty. Clearly outline what is, and is not included with a product purchase, and support. Make a point of explaining what consumables are, and typical operational costs.

Training – What is That ?

Education and training are essential foundations for success. With complex machines, it’s a necessity for safe and proper operation. The faster you learn how to operate properly, the faster you make product, sell to a customer, and make money. Just because the nonprofessional has self- proclaimed experience, means little in the case of operating a new machine, process, or procedure. Rest assured, it will become your problem when failure ensues. While we are a big believer trial- and-error, that really belongs in product development, not in learning to operate a machine, process, or way to do business.

Aggression – Phone Versus Email: It all starts with a simple phone call. When the nonprofessional doesn’t get the answers they are looking for, their aggression increases and the volume gets ramped up. Then, expect the anger escalation to start flowing.

Your best response, and option here, is to simply hang-up the phone, call block the person, and send them a email which outlines the rules for courteous communications. Email is always preferred since you can refer back to what was actually written down. It reduces the gas lighting (revisionist history). The angry nonprofessional likes to use the phone. It’s a people manipulation technique to get very upset, and create doubt, and what better way than to use the phone. It provides immediate gratification to the nonprofessional.

Trust But Verify: In the new age of social media, false truths, fake news, and rearranging the truth, you can’t be too sure what you are being told. This is ramped up in the Cannabis industry.

Verify what people are telling you. Don’t believe what people say, unless you can actually see the evidence, that it’s true. Unfortunately, in our current political and social climate, people lie all the time. Since there is little consequence to not having any character, people get away with it, and make it a habit. Surround yourself with good- character people and businesses. If somebody is lying to you, move on.

Create Doubt: Probably the best tool for the nonprofessional, is to create doubt. This type of behavior is meant to produce guilt, shame, and very judgmental that something you are doing is wrong. It begets experience, which the nonprofessional lacks, and so it becomes your problem.

When the nonprofessional creates doubt (successfully), it opens the door for free time,support, replacements, refunds, harassment, etc.  The best way to respond to doubt, is to clearly outline (written) expectations, outcomes, procedures, and becomes great drama-free conflict management. We’re all here to make money right ?

Who Makes Profit ? That’s a great question. The simple answer is that those who make profit, have a good customer base (who are willing to pay more for your product, or are loyal to your product, than anybody else). This means you have to have a better quality product, regardless of price. If you are running a CO2 extraction business, you are in direct competition with the BHO extractors, who can blow out their concentrates and oil at a much lower price. But that comes at a cost – lower quality oil (contains heavy metals which are bad for the consumer) and have little to no shelf-life (product goes bad quickly). The most important thing is to listen to your customers, what they want and need.

Does Anyone Make Money ? Lots of cash exchanges hands. But the market is flooded with product. Lots of supply, means low or no margin, so very few (if any) make profit. For the larger corporate groups that are vertically integrated, including a dispensary to sell their product, yes. Does a cultivator make money ? No. Or at least we have yet to see anyone that does. With lots of product, wholesale prices are low, and with low wholesale, the grower makes little, or nothing. Most growers pay zero attention to managing utility or production costs. Like any other business, you need to produce lean.

Why Do Cultivators Continue To Grow, If They’re Losing Money ?

It’s the promise of better things to come. We always hear, “Just wait until it’s legal all over the country.” Looking at that logic, the supply will only increase, and profit margins will go further south (decrease). As smaller producers lose money, or go bankrupt, they are swallowed up and engulfed by larger corporate groups. Market consolidation begins. It’s not easy for the small entrepreneur to make any money, unless they are well verses in a profit-based business organization, that has a bottom line that is black, not red.

Inefficiencies Add Up: With huge amounts of cash exchanging hands, it’s not uncommon for inefficiencies, and poor business practices, to add up. It adds up to losing money. Then groups continue to hemorrhage money, hoping things turnaround, which they don’t. Have a business plan, that outlines when to get out, or when to expand. Make goals, as well as limitations. Always run with the attitude, “Can I provide the same product and quality, but which costs me less ?” Never stop trying to look for alternatives where others do not, and look to produce at lower costs. Saving a few dollars here and there really add up at the end of the year.

Outdoor Versus Indoor Grow: If you’re a purist, then you appreciate the outdoor grown product. But the reality is that most consumers don’t care. Trying to make a profit on a one crop per year model, doesn’t make money, unless you have a niche market. A indoor grow, that has a staggered harvest for a weekly or biweekly basis, becomes a potential profit machine. Look around who is selling the most product (at a profit) and emulate what they do. Success begets success.

Hydroponics Versus FogPonics: The most efficient energy, grow time, and oil production model, is FogPonics. Set up on a staggered growth and harvest schedule, this can provide a weekly harvest production format, that keeps the fewest amount of workers, busy all the time. It has the lowest energy consumption in the industry (this would apply to both cannabis and vegetables). The basic concept is vertical using PVC piping, sharing one intensive HID lighting element. FogPonics can reduce water and nutrient cost by up to 80 percent, and requires less cooling (HVAC). It has 10 times the production versus other grow formats. LED’s only work for seedlings and veg stage.

Taxation Without Representation: Yes, your local government will make lots of money on your licensing fees, and fees related to production. The downside to vertical farming is that many municipalities will base licensing fees on a per-square-foot basis (on a three dimensional space), so if you go vertical, you get penalized and charged more. Before you start a grow or extraction business, check on local licensing costs. You may be surprised how expensive it is. Be sure to be clear on licensing costs per square foot, and if that includes vertical space.

Target Oil Production And Varieties That Produce Faster: Some varieties of Cannabis produce the maximum amount of trichomes at 75 percent of their growth stage, which means that the specific variety can be harvested for oil extraction before the full growth, which results in little additional oil, but more biomass. In this case, focus on Indica (Cinderella). Faster indoor growing varieties will produce consistently more oil than outdoor grows. The name of the game for profit is production. Look at varieties that get you to your end product faster.

Cannabis Alternative – Oregano Oil Extract: Interested in other options for cultivation and oil extraction ? This is one of the most disruptive industry secrets, which will be out soon. Oregano oil extracts may have the same, or better medical implications than CBD’s, and there’s already lots of research on it. Nobody is doing CO2 extraction’s for Oregano oil, it’s all steam distilled, which damages the valuable terpenes and other valuable compounds. CO2 extraction’s preserve the valuable terpenes, and other antioxidant components. Best of all, it’s legal everywhere. Who knows, you might come up with the next best pizza tincture !

It’s A Niche Market: Why produce a Budweiser, when you can cultivate a fine Bourbon?  Seek out niche markets. Less competition, and higher end prices, give you more opportunity for profit. Make it a habit to ask your customers what they want, what they like, and what they don’t like. Marketing is all about discovering what people want, and how to sell them that product. Don’t make a product, just to sit on it hoping prices will get better. The customer desires, as with your product, have a shelf-life. You need to look beyond what is out there now (and not selling well). It’s a technique which you have to train yourself to do, but has great rewards.

Conclusion: If you are entering the Cannabis space, or are looking for avenues to actually make a profit, and stop the hemorrhage of negative cash flow, educate yourself. Ask questions. Visit and tour successful operations. Trust only what you can verify.

Running a profitable business is not an endgame, but a dynamic process of learning to take what doesn’t work, and building on what does. Don’t repeat or recycle failure, repeat success.

Infinity Supercritical 10L vs NuAxon CO2

Review: 20171012-infinity-supercritical-vs-nuaxon

NuAxon Website: https://www.nuaxon.com  and https://www.nuaxontech.com/co2-extractors

Overall Comments:

NuAxon: They offer 10L (2 x 5L) and 50L (2 x 25L) and 5,000 psi fully automated system, which requires a PLC (included with the system) to run the system. Made in India. Proprietary software. Company: New to the Cannabis space. Website is hard to look at, with moving train in the background. Machines built: Unknown. Footprint for larger 25L: Huge. 17.5 ft tall, by 25 x 25 feet floorspace. 24+ weeks to build and ship. Location: Indiana and mfg in India. Price of larger 2x25L system: Approximately $500,000+

System: Collection:

NuAxon: They offer several collection vessels, and waste collection vessel, unsure of capacity to collect or prevent carry-over of oil. Design of system looks industrial and complicated.

Infinity has three collection vessels at 1.5 L each, and they use electrostatic precipitation and filter to prevent any carry-over. Fractionation can be controlled by Back Pressure Valve(s) BVP, chiller temperature, and electrostatic precipitation. Infinity has built systems in the USA that are currently running on Cannabis/Hemp, and build time of 2-3 weeks. Shipping takes a few days.

Infinity Supercritical Uses 3 Collection Separation Vessels

Extraction Vessel:
NuAxon: They offer multiple vessels with quick closure tops. They use high pressure components, which means 1/16 or 1/32 tube size (may have clogging issues) and use pneumatic valves which require external compressor. Typically external air compressors are loud, and require a chiller for cooling.

Infinity System has horizontal or vertical extraction vessels, no moving parts, and includes baskets which allow easy loading and unloading. System interconnecting tube size is 1/2 and 1/4 inch (no clogging).

Baskets also allow flash freezing from harvest, which allows extraction of high-value resin.

Extraction Time:

NuAxon: They claim cycle time of 90 minutes but don’t provide any details, nor any lab results running actual Cannabis. Fast extractions can happen with 5,000 psi systems, however a fast extraction is not the complete story. High pressure extraction will extract everything from the botanical, which results and much longer post processing times to remove the unwanted material (such as waxes and other compounds). High pressure = more waxes. See: https://www.google.com/patents/US7344736  Removing such material can add huge amounts of time to the post processing schedule, which eliminates and time savings originally obtained from extraction of the crude oil. System is build in India. Unclear if how support is done, since manufacturing plant is in India.

Infinity has a 1-3 hour run time, and is experimenting with 30/30 and 45/45 cycle times. Infinity has lab results posted on their webpage running Cannabis, and does lots of testing in the shop in Ferndale, Washington. The extraction pressure is at or below 2,000 psi, which specifically targets the Cannabis or Hemp oil, not the waxes and other materials which have low to no value, and need to be post-processed out. Manufacturing and support is in USA. Parts can be overnight shipped.

Photos of Extract from the Infinity Supercritical CO2 Botanical Extraction System

Separation Vessels:

NuAxon: They use a two separation vessels. Lack of detail limits ability to decipher quality of extraction collection.  Unsure how collection vessels are heated with their system. In general, the vessels need some type of heating system. This can be a enclosed hot water bath (slow heating time and requires a chiller that is actually used for heated water), or solid state electric heat (fast response).

Infinity CO2 system has three collection separation vessels, which use electrostatic precipitation to assist in recovery of oil extract and produces a crude oil. Any crude oil (applies to all CO2 extraction systems) needs to be post processed (dewaxed/rotovaped) and then ready for either direct use for vape pens, or further flash Chromatography or distillation for separation of fractions, which will then be recombined into a recipe for vape pen and concentrates. Infinity uses the solid state heat on the collection/separation vessels.

Infinity Supercritical Uses Electrostatic Precipitation (ESP) to Assist in the Collection of Cannabis and Hemp Oil Extracts – Infinity discovered the static effect during testing. The action of CO2 moving over Teflon (closed-loop) makes a static charge. The production of a static charge does not require any outside power source – it’s all done just from the tribo-effect of the CO2 moving over Teflon (in-situ). Infinity uses a specially designed (and patent-pending) Teflon device to produce the static charge. Better collection of oil means reduced or eliminated carry-over of oil (i.e. reduced pump maintenance).

CO2 Pump:

NuAxon: High pressure diaphragm pump? Type of pump is unclear. Rated at 350 bar or 5,145 psi. Pump reliability is unknown. Typically high pressure pumps are prone to breakdown, and require more maintenance. More details would be helpful on their website. In large batch systems, it’s important to get CO2 to soak through the entire botanicals, which is more difficult in larger vessels. Typically, CO2 is put in one end of a vessel, and exits out the other end.

Infinity uses a liquid pump (silent operation) with up to 4 gpm per minute CO2 flow. However, we have found through testing that less flow, results in better botanical soak (CO2 permeation) has better results. Combine that with a FlowBar (CO2 distribution tube which runs up through the entire extraction vessel) results in better soak, in less time, and less flow. We also use a heat exchanger that recovers heat from the gearbox and puts that heat into the CO2 flow which reduces power demand. Infinity has been testing and refining our pump for over two years, and it has a good track record of operation in the Cannabis industry. You can add co-solvent in the Infinity machine manually, and a pump cleaning device as an optional add-on to reduce maintenance and clean seals in place. This reduces pump cleaning time with the system, and faster turn-around time to the next cycle/extraction. The name of the game is processing. The more time spent extracting oil in the most efficient time, results in more profits.

Infinity Supercritical Uses a Swagelok Back Pressure Value and a Automated Pressure Sensor PID to Maintain System Pressure from the VFD Controlled CO2 Pump


NuAxon: They claim to go up to 350 bar or 5,145 psi, which is the full extraction range. That should be good for any plant extracting process. Anything above 2,000 psi will extract waxes and chlorophyll. That requires a great deal of post processing (which can be up to 5-10 times the amount of extraction time, depending on type of post processing procedure and staff available). Waters uses a system that goes up to that pressure as well, and for groups that want high pressure, most will purchase a Waters (which dominates the Denver market) that can also fractionate oil extract output into three vessels.

Infinity goes up to 2,000 psi and output is targeted for Cannabis or Hemp oil concentrate, not waxes or chlorophyll. Infinity offers a CO2 pump cleaning system.

Infinity Supercritical Uses CO2 Sight Glass to View Liquid CO2 in System Processing

Pressure Maintenance:

NuAxon: They use a proprietary pressure maintaining system (other information is unknown, and not provided).

Infinity uses a Swagelok BPV (Back Pressure Valve) to precisely regulate pressure, and a automated pressure sensor feedback loop, which is controlled by a VFD. The Variable Frequency Drive regulates the pump RPM, to maintain pressure. Set it, and it maintains pressure. The VFD also has ModBus which allow external communications to network with monitoring and control. Parts made in USA. Spare parts available overnight. Infinity also offers a ethanol based pump cleaning device. This bolt-on option to the 10L Infinity system allows the pump to be cleaned in-place, without removing the pump-head. The system not only cleans the pistons of the pump, but also the seals. By not removing the pump head or seals, can result in huge time savings (and less staff time).


Infinity Supercritical CO2 Pump Cleaning Device


NuAxon: They have a fully automated system that requires a PLC (as part of the system) and pneumatic air system. They include manual valves, in case the cycle needs to be interrupted.

Infinity uses standard semi-automated VFD and PID systems. Customer can upgrade to a PLC to monitor the system via network computer, or via smartphone. Additional datalogging capabilities using Filemaker database software, which includes text alerts, maintenance alerts, etc. Cycle time is so fast, that an technician needs to be there at all times. As with any high pressure equipment, running high-value botanicals, an attendant should be there at all times.

Infinity Supercritical CO2 Semi Automated System With Zone Pressure and Heat Control


NuAxon: Unclear what diameter tubes they use. If they are using 5,000 psi compliant tubing, then they’re probably using 1/16 or 1/8 inch tubing, which will clog (ask any Waters operator). Parts made in India.

Infinity uses 1/2 to 1/2 inch stainless steel tubing. No clogging. Parts made in USA and available overnight.

Infinity Supercritical Uses Standard Pressure Meters and 1/4 to 1/2 Inch Stainless Steel Tubes Which Do Not Clog


NuAxon: Around $500,000+ (for 2x25L systems) and long manufacturing times and shipment from India, which can be 6 weeks+. System is huge (footprint is 25 x 25 feet with 17 ft height) and requires crew to assemble.

The Infinity System is $99,000 for a 10L system (number up for larger system configurations which result in a discounted price) compact (24 x 48 x 71 inches) and is rolled out of the crate and ready to install and operate. The Infinity System is designed to fit through any standard sized door, hallway, or elevator. It is mounted on industrial casters, so you can roll it anywhere you want. Since the system is semi-automated, you have the flexibility of running different recipes, and can change up the schedule on-the-fly. System not prone to any software glitches. Does require an attendant at all times, since our cycle times are very fast.

Engineer Review:

NuAxon: Unclear if they have a engineer peer review for the USA (it’s not listed on their website). To operate legally, you will need to have a full peer review by a certified ASME PE before installation (custom reviews can cost more than $15,000). Their larger 25L system looks like it has to be assembled on-site, which requires additional certification.

Infinity has a engineer peer reviewed system, and is already approved in the state of California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Washington, and Oregon. The plug-and-play system is rolled out of the crate and ready to install and operate.

Infinity Supercritical Engineer Peer Reviewed and Approved for Use in California, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, and Colorado

Overall Comments:

NuAxon: Looks like they have a system originally designed for spices in India (so system may be well proven if that is the case), and converting or marketing to the Cannabis space. They don’t mention Cannabis or Hemp on their website. Unknown in the USA. Country of the pressure vessel manufacture is unknown, assume it’s India.

While the high-automation might seem attractive, unless the PLC is operating with good software 100 percent of the time, it will be frustrating to troubleshoot, especially if something goes wrong and support from India (if support is USA based then that will be better). While Apeks systems are very popular with full automation, the big complaint with Apeks operators is the software failure (which can automatically vent all the CO2) and updates.

Infinity has developed a Supercritical CO2 system specifically for the Cannabis and Hemp industry. The technological improvements have resulted in fast cycle processing time, less carry-over of oil, better CO2 pump operation, and less maintenance. While the Infinity System is smaller (10L per machine), they have found that numbering up gives the operator more flexibility in running different Cannabis varieties, and a faster more consistent processing time (less extractor volume results in faster CO2 and pressure soak). The consistency of the Infinity System results in a superior Cannabis extract. The Infinity System is more comparable to a fine Bourbon compared to a mass-produced Pabst.


Automatic Pump Cleaning Device for Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction Machines

Infinity Supercritical announces a method to clean your Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction pump internal moving parts and seals using ethanol, without pump head removal.

Infinity Supercritical has developed a device which connects to your liquid CO2 pump, that will clean both your pump internal moving parts, and the seals, at the same time. Ethanol is pumped (using your liquid pump) closed-loop through the pump which dissolves any botanical oil build up.

The reclaimed oil from the pump can then be recovered using a rotovap. This pump cleaning device can be used with any Cat CO2 pump. Depending on the configuration of your liquid pump, the device may also be able to be used with other industrial CO2 pumps.

The main advantage of this type of closed-loop cleaning system is that you can clean the seals in place, without removing the pump head.



Compressed Air Botanical Oil Extraction


Compressed Air Botanical Extraction Testing – Cascade Hops


Compressed Air Botanical Extraction Testing – Water Vortex


Photos of Prototype Test Stand With Compressed Air Botanical Extraction



Infinity Supercritical Announces Advanced Organic Method of Botanical Oil Extraction Using Compressed Air

Patent Pending
Benefits Corporate Cannabis and Hemp Industry

Infinity Supercritical LLC, a leading manufacturer of botanical extraction equipment, announces the industry’s first organic method of oil extraction using compressed air as the solvent.

The new method involves a compressed air extraction system which is being introduced into the industry for the extraction of oil from cannabis and CBDs from hemp. The oil extract, called a concentrate, can  be used in vape pens, edibles, and further processed into CBDs for medical and health purposes as tablets or capsules. The system can also be used for other botanicals, which have medicinal benefits, such as ginger, oregano, lavender, and other nutraceuticals that have a medicinal action in humans and animals, since they contain phytochemicals, and metabolites.

The system is so efficient that the process takes a few seconds, instead of hours or days, which is common in the industry now which used batch systems. In addition, the system uses only compressed air as the solvent, instead of commonly used CO2, ethanol (alcohol), or butane.

With a continuous feed system, different botanicals or varieties can be processed on-the-fly. Legacy batch systems can only process one botanical or variety at a time.

The equipment is modular and can be scaled up to any size. As a continuous feed, continuous flow process, batch systems are now obsolete. The smaller footprint results in lower initial acquisition, maintenance, and operational costs. The added benefit of a smaller continuous feed system is more efficient use of energy. No large liquid or gas storage is required, as with batch systems. Clean filtered air can be produced on-site.

This process technology can also be used in other industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, nutraceuticals, and algae oil extraction. The system can also be used for mixing or separating gas streams, such as separating CO2 from other gases.

Infinity Supercritical LLC develops and markets innovative botanical oil extraction systems. Emphasis is placed on developing new technology to reduce extraction time, and producing a superior oil product, maximizing extracted antioxidants, terpenes, and nutraceuticals. Industries served include cannabis, hemp, oregano, and hops.

Please visit http://www.infinitysupercritical.com for more information.


Method of Improving Nutrient Delivery to Plant Roots via Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Publication PDF Review: 20170901-infinity-supercritical-sdr-hydropump

Delivering nutrients to plants in mechanized cultivation can be improved by utilizing methods that reduce the nutrient size, to better match plant root receptors (pores).

Making delivery of nutrients in an efficient way can reduce both water and nutrient costs.

Infinity Supercritical has been researching and developing new ways to make processing and delivering nutrients to plants more cost effective, while reducing demand for raw ingredients. This in turn, reduces infrastructure and maintenance.

While there are many ways to nourish plants in cultivation, one of the most effective and efficient, is aeroponics. A system called FogPonics was developed and improved by John Baker. The premise of the Fogponics system is to macerate nutrients by mechanical breakdown to around 1 micron which is made more efficiently delivered to plant root pores.

The nutrients and water are pumped over 1,000 psi and ejected through small nozzles, which turn the liquid stream into vapor, which resembles fog.

The system delivers nutrient-rich fog to plant roots at around 95 percent relative humidity.

While ultrasonics can be used to reduce the nutrient particle size in water, it also throws off the pH (more acidic).  Reference: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a031182. pdf

In this case, we can compare acoustical (16 – 40 kHz) versus hydrodynamic cavitation.

Both will change the pH value, however the hydrodynamic cavitation is more effective, and efficient. Better yet, it’s highly tunable to your specific nutrient and water pH.

“The hydrodynamic cavitation is more energy e cient as compared to acoustic cavitation and an almost 13 times higher cavitational yield was obtained in case of hydrodynamic cavitation as compared to that in acoustic cavitation. ”

Reference: https://www.researchgate. net/publication/231377138_Hydrodynamic_C avitation_as_an_Advanced_Oxidation_Techn ique_for_the_Degradation_of_Acid_Red_88_ Dye

Even better, using hydrodynamically cavitated water increases root growth.

“… hydrodynamic cavitation has increased growth of root system of saplings of a pine ordinary and has raised their resistibility to pathogenic micro flora.”

Reference: http://www.hrpub. org/download/20131107/UJES4-14601241. pdf

The only downside of the FogPonics system, is the high pressure 1,000+ psi pump. High pressure pumps are loud, and prone to maintenance issues, and expensive.

The alternative is using a Spinning Disc Reactor (SDR) from Infinity Supercritical, which they have developed (patented) which provides mixing, maceration, and tunable (for pH level dynamics).

The SDR is a quiet alternative, which can provide a pressurized waterflow through any lower pressure nozzle to fog the water and nutrients, while providing the benefits of hydrodynamic cavitation.

As far as plant health goes, the ambient temperature doesn’t matter for the main plant

foliage above the surface. But compared to the root structure below, the desired temperature should be within 58-68 F in the root zone. The root pores (plant mouth), is around 3 to 5 micron. So if you can provide a nutrient delivery system at or below that range, you can more efficiently deliver food to the plants.

As long as the roots have a healthy environment (around 95 percent RH with nutrients) the foliage will thrive. This can be done with roots suspended, in the enclosed environment described above.

The goal is to provide a water and nutrient delivery system, combined with a low power, silent running pump.

Not only do you get the benefits of a integrated nutrient reduction (down to 1 micro) system, but also a pressurized system with hydrodynamic cavitation, where you can select the temperature, in one simple device.

It is suggested that the FogPonics system can reduce nutrient costs, water consumption, energy, and maintenance costs anywhere from 10-35 percent.

Spinning Disc Reactor Hydrodynamic Cavitation Mixing Pump
Testing Maceration of Nutrient Tablets in a Ultrasonic Bath
Sonification of Nutrient Tablets in Ultrasonic Bath
Resulting Sonification of Nutrient Tablets
Nutrient Tablets Used In Example of Sonification
Dissolving Nutrient Tablet in Sonification
Bamboo Seedling Using Nutrient Fog from Sonification

Techniques for Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Materials

PDF Publication Review: 20170901-infinity-supercritical-extraction-methods

Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials

Azmir, J., Zaidul, I. S. M., Rahman, M. M., Sharif, K. M., Mohamed, A., Sahena, F., … and Omar, A. K. M. (2013). Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials: a review. Journal of Food Engineering, 117(4), 426-436.


This review will go over bioactive compounds in plants, their classification, their extraction via conventional and non-conventional means, and bringing bioactive materials from plant to a commercial product.

The most important factors in extraction techniques are the matrix properties of the plant, solvent type, temperature, pressure, and extraction time.

Conventional methods include more traditional means of extraction using solvents solvating power with different temperatures and mechanical means of mixing, while non- conventional include other ways to increase the solvating power and reduce the amount of solvent used, usually making them more environmentally friendly and more selective.
Most bioactive compounds found in plants are secondary metabolites, which mean they don’t contribute to the overall growth and development, but are believed by the plant and evolution to help the plant survive and overcome local challenges. The simple definition is any secondary plant metabolite that elicits a pharmacological or toxicological effect in humans or animals.

Some examples of this are floral compounds that encourage or discourage certain species of fauna to interact with the plant, or possibly toxins that dissuade herbivores from eating the plant.

Almost all bioactive compounds can be placed into three main categories; terpenes and terpenoids, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds.

Conventional ways to get bioactive compounds involved passing solvents through the bed of the plant in various ways, either through evaporation and then condensation, or direct passing through. Usually this involved hot temperatures which can degrade certain molecules, low ending concentrations, and long extraction times.

To decrease extraction times, increase yields, increase purity of ending product, and being more sensitive to the bioactive compounds, non-conventional extraction methods were developed which include: ultrasound assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction.

Ultrasonic waves cause a phenomenon called cavitation when traversing through liquids where bubbles are produced, grow, and then collapse. During this process the kinetic energy is turned into heat and can heat the bubbles to incredibly high temperatures and pressures till they collapse. This accelerates mass transfer and allows for more access of the solvent to cell materials in plant parts through breaking of the cell wall.

This method increases extraction efficiencies without the need of thorough mixing or hotsolvent. In most cases it leads to less solvent being used, lower energy consumption, better yields, and lower extraction times.

Enzyme-assisted extraction employs the use of enzymes to help free bioactive molecules possibly from hydrogen or hydrophobic bonding and uses enzymes like cellulase and pectinase to break the cell wall and hydrolyze structural polysaccharides and lipid bodies.

This type of extraction comes in handy when extracting fragile bioactive compounds from seeds and allow for water to be used as a solvent in certain processes that would need the higher solvating power of organic solvents.

Microwave-assisted extraction uses changing electric and magnetic field to impact polar molecules and heat them up, which increases mass transfer.

This technique allows for some selectivity in which molecules are heated and thus grabbed more by the solvent, decreases temperature gradients, and increases extraction yield of intact organic and organometallic compounds.

Pulsed-electric field extraction causes a potential through the membrane of the plant cells, which causes molecules to separate according to their charge. As they accumulate, they increase repulsion forces and can weaken the membrane to the point of breaking which increases the release of compounds from the plant matrix.

This technique allows for the release of bioactive compounds without increasing temperature at all and is chosen to increase extraction yields of highly heat sensitive compounds.

Supercritical fluids can be achieved when a compound is heated and pressurized past both it’s critical temperature and pressure and there is no specific gas/liquid properties. This means the fluid retains it’s gas-like diffusion, viscosity, and surface tension, and its liquid- like density and solvating power.

Normally, CO2 is used due to its low critical temperature (87.8 degrees F) and low critical pressure (1073.3 psi), but it does have some limitations due to it’s low polarity. This can normally be overcome by adding small amounts of a polar compound like ethanol.

Supercritical fluid extraction’s main

advantages is it’s high diffusion coefficient and low viscosity allows for high penetration into the plant matrix, the tunability of the density and thus solvating power to certain compounds, the ease of removal of the solvent via depressurization, low critical temperature (with CO2) and thus low impact on heat sensitive molecules, lower use of organic solvent, and reusability of the fluid minimizing waste.

Pressurized liquid extraction uses higher temperatures and pressures of usually organic solvents to decrease extraction times and thus decrease solvent use. It’s found to be quite effective and battles supercritical fluid extraction in the extraction of polar molecules.

Finally, some details on how we go from plant to a commercial product. First a plant species of interest in chosen through preliminary screening of traditionally used plants. This screening involves confirming the actual validity of their use for whatever physiological effect.

Next the toxicity of the plant is assessed to see if there are any side effects or other components that could cause issues with residual amounts from extraction.

Then, extraction of the plant sample and isolation of different compounds to high purity is done using the extraction techniques described above. From here biological testing is done on the individual components to find which cause the physiological response determined before. Sometimes when no clear active compound arises the combination of different compounds is tested to see if together they impart a synergistic effect.

Once an active compound or mixture is found, testing is done again first on animals and then moving to human studies to confirm the individual components affect, strength, and correct dosage for the desired effect.

Finally, after passing safety and toxicity studies as well as showing statistically significant benefits, cost-effectiveness and sustainability of industrial production is investigated to finally confirm a potential commercial product.

How to Select a Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction System for Extracting Botanical Oil

Selecting a supercritical CO2 oil extraction system can be a daunting process, given all the choices that are now available. Here is a short, but comprehensive list of important features you should be looking for.


  • Speed of Extraction Process: The time it takes to complete a cycle, with all other factors being equal, will determine your ability to process more material and become more profitable. Batch systems will require you to load, and wait while the system processes the material, which can take up to 12 hours or more for some systems.
  • Quality of Extracted Oil: The manufacturer should provide you with lab results of extracted oil. You can also speak with customers in determining the consistency of oil, and concentrates after post-processing. Profitable machines typically will produce a crude oil, which is then further refined during a separate procedure termed post-processing. This is where waxes and other compounds are removed from the oil to purify the Terpenes, THC, and CBDs (Cannabis and Hemp).
  • Automation vs. Semi-Automation: Extraction professionals prefer semi-automated systems, because it gives them flexibility to produce a variety of products, from live resin, shatter (post processing required), crumb, vape pen oil, dabs, and concentrates. Semi-automation allows you to also run a infinity variety of recipes for the extraction process, including first removing Terpenes (without heat) and then continuing the process with heat for other extracted compounds. Automation is great for single variety processing, and mass production of oil. Limitations of automation include malfunctions with software (or updates), and the use of more CO2 than non-automation machines. Backpressure valves are needed for precise pressure control. Most automated systems require a connection to the internet. Semi-automated systems can be utilized in remote locations, without the need for a internet connection.
  • Beware of Expansion Systems: Most CO2 pumps are designed for a specific flow rate. While this can be varied to some degree, simply adding extraction vessels in 5L or 10L increments drastically changes the system dynamics. Most extraction systems are dialed in for a specific volume and flow of CO2.
  • Delivery Time: Most extraction systems are build to order. 2-4 weeks is a reasonable build time.
  • CO2 Recovery: Well build extraction systems will retain the majority of the CO2 in a holding tank or reservoir. Beware of systems that use commercial CO2 supply cylinders as the storage reservoir, since most suppliers of CO2 will not allow you to return or refill rental or leased bottles, if they contain any traces of botanical oil or residue. Efficient systems will vent off extraction and collection vessel CO2, which needs to be replace for each cycle. Expensive systems will have a CO2 recovery system, which adds to the initial cost, and can be a maintenance headache. In our opinion, a expensive recovery system is a waste of money.
  • CO2 Pumps: Closed loop systems require a robust method to pressurize and circulate the CO2, which is the solvent for the botanicals. There are liquid and gas systems. Both work effectively well, but the liquid system is a smaller footprint, easier to maintain, and provides a more efficient delivery of CO2. diaphragm gas pumps are large, required compressed air (noisy), and expensive to maintain. Efficient liquid CO2 pumps can be powered directly with a electric motor, which allows silent operation (less operator fatigue from no noise), and can have the CO2 heated as it exits the pump, which ensures even heat distribution in the botanicals. Pumps should have easy access to maintenance, and a good system of filtering before the pump, so that little to no carry-over (residual botanical oil which is sticky) reaches the pump. Expect to change the seals on a good pump about once a month, if proper machine operation is followed to reduce carry-over.
  • Training: Supercritical Co2 Extraction systems require proper training to operators for normal operating procedures, safety, and maintenance.


Advantages with Infinity Supercritical CO2 Botanical Extraction Systems:

-Simplicity: because our systems are not automated, you do not have to
worry about software updates, system shutdowns (in the middle of a run
due to power failure or software hickups), or problematic pressure

-Full Automation: After consulting with more Cannabis extraction
professionals, we have decided against moving forward with full
automation. Our customers are getting such great results with a
semi-automated system, we believe it is not advantageous to deploy
fully automated PLC systems. After talking with several Apeks
customers, we do not believe that a fully automated system, is the
best choice for a production Cannabis oil operation.

-FlowBar: we distribute CO2 over the length of the extraction vessel,
and from the inside of the Cannabis to the outside. The result is a
much faster, and complete extraction. This means that you can run
through 2-4 times more cycles than with the same size competition.
With our system, you can do a extraction cycle in 1-3 hours. Faster
extraction means more profit, so your payback is even faster with our
system. To be conservative, just plan on a 3 hour extraction time, and
experiment with your actual extraction time.

-Electro-Static Precipitation System: we use the action of the CO2
flowing over food-grade Teflon to produce a passive static charge. The
tribo-effect charges the oil entrained in the CO2 gas so that it
sticks to the first contact, which is the first collection vessel.
Better collection equals less or minimal carry-over, which reduces
pump maintenance.

-Tube Size: we use 1/4 to 1/2 inch Swagelok tubes and components,
which allow better flow of the CO2.

-Silent CO2 Pump: we use a highly-modified industrial liquid CO2 pump,
which runs using a motor. Operation is silent. Our extensive
modification means very minimal maintenance, and seal replacement can
be done by removing the pump head (about 5 minutes), cleaning the
pistons (about 10 minutes), and replacing seals (about 10 minutes).

-No Noisy Air Compressor: we do not need, nor use, a external pneumatic air
compressor (or additional chiller to cool the compressor which gets
hot from use). Compressor is so loud, that most systems which require
it, will need a separate room because it’s so noisy. Noise produces
extractor technician fatigue.

-Swagelok Back Pressure Valve: we use a very precise BVP, which allows
us to achieve very accurate pressures. We do not use valveless
technology, which produces pressure swings.

-CO2 Preheat: we use a heat exchanger on our motor-to-pump gearbox,
which preheats the CO2 before it gets into the extraction vessel. By
using the heat (byproduct of the gearbox), we are conserving energy
and preheating the CO2.

-Pressure and Heat Zone Feedback PID: we use compact PLCs to control
the pressure (with a feedback loop via digital sensor) and three zone
heat monitor, control, and feedback.

-Less Complicated: the system we have is modular, on a sturdy
industrial bolt-together frame, with casters, and can be wheeled
through any standard door, hallway, or elevator. The modular cart is
24 inches wide, by 48 inches long, by 71 inches in height. You will
notice the clean lines, minimal tubing, and logical layout of the

-Less Stuff Needed to Run: our system requires a liquid CO2 supply
(cylinders), and a small chiller. That’s it. No air compressor, or
items to support that compressor.

-Quality Extract: our customers who perform extraction, say that their
ultimate customers rave about the quality and aroma of the extracted
oil. The quality terpenes that are extracted and ultimately preserved,
make the end-user experience a quality one.

-New Technology: we’re working on a solid state chiller (bolt-on),
energy saver heating/cooling technology, acoustical ultrasonics, and
other advanced technology, which not only enhance the operator
experience, but will reduce cycle time, while increasing quality of
extract. The bottom line is to save you time, and increase production,
which result in more profit. We are also working on SDR (Spinning Disc
Reactor) technology which will allow continuous flow processing, and
without pressure or CO2.

For more information, please visit: http://www.infinitysupercritical.com

For extraction supplies, including chillers, rotovap, distillation, and vape pen supplies: Click here

Profiting from Botanical Oil Extraction

PDF Download: 20170822-infinity-supercritical-co2-extraction-profit-review

Introduction: The market segment which is making money right now is oil extraction and concentrates. This might be cannabis oil (vape pens), hemp oil (CBDs), or in the nutraceuticals industry, phenols and metabolites. The later is mainly used in the supplement industry in tablet, capsule, and concentrate form (tincture – used to drop into tea, flavor drinks, etc.).

Oil extraction is a value-added segment of the industry, which is more profitable than cultivation, due to the limited number of extractors. Lots of cultivators and large supply, drive prices down. Limited extractors, and small supply, drive prices up.


Research: The best strategy is to research and study the area you want to focus on, and which industry and consumer to target. If you focus on a niche market, you will have better results, than if you do what everyone else does.

Branding: Having your own brand will identify your product with consistency. It allows the consumer to quickly chose your product, and refer your product to others. Word of mouth is sometimes the best advertising, and best of all it’s free.

Steps to Profit


Step 1: Identify your botanical, product, and market. What product do you want to sell, and who is going to buy it ?

Step 2: Identify attributes to your product, and benefits of the botanical. Choose a brand name.

Step 3: Establish a botanical supplier and purity. Have a certified lab test your botanical sample, and indicate pesticide free, and available oil. Negotiate your best price on the botanicals, and insist on regular sample testing, and tracking from growth, harvest, and final delivery.

Step 4: Flavinoids. Do you want your brand product to have flavor ? Botanicals are flavored by compounds called terpenes, which can be removed in the extraction process. They can even be removed, and replaced, with a different flavor (such as removing a hops taste or smell, with vanilla).

Step 5: Establish your market network. This may include direct-to-customer sales (via a website or sales agents), for non-regulated items Amazon, or through retail organizations like dispensaries.

Step 6: Source and assemble your extraction process, including the extraction equipment and any post-processing equipment needed to put the oil or concentrate into a consumer ready format (i.e. vape pens, tincture, etc.). Get competitive quotes on equipment, and go see it in operation before you buy.

Step 7: Develop a comprehensive website, which includes ordering direct, publications on the product, including any scientific research. For fast set-up, use WordPress.

Step 8: Test run your production line, and provide free samples for a limited time.

Step 9: Price your product. A brand name will command a higher price than a generic product. A niche market will also bring higher prices. Do you want a one-time sale, or offer a subscription ?

Step 10: Return on Investment feedback. Set a loop in the chain of supply and sales that allows you to capture and analyze metrics of the cost of goods versus your profit. Adjust your supplier price, and sale price accordingly.

Summary: While this is not a comprehensive list of everything that needs to be done, this will get you on the right path. These steps are merely guidelines, that can get you on the road to profit. You may need to re-number the list, according to your priority and product development. Redefining markets, customers, and profits is a dynamic strategy, since none of those factors are static. Over time, you need to constantly innovate new ways to market and develop your product for a savvy consumer.


Infinity Supercritical Botanical Oil Extraction Machine Which Uses CO2 as the Solvent