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New for 2018: Infinity Supercritical Introduces Fast Filter System for Winterizing Process of Removing Waxes also used for Graphene Filtering

January 20, 2018 Addendum: This fast filter technology can also be used to fast filter graphene from graphene processing. The filter allows fast capture of graphene which is currently used in the high-tech sector.

Fast Filter Process for Dewaxing Winterized Liquid – Portable and Modular Fast Filter System – Plug and Play

If you currently use Buchner flasks, consider a Infinity Fast Filter System for dewaxing your winterized solution for up to 10 times faster than conventional filtering.

20180102-infinity-supercritical-fast-filter-dewax-01
Example of dewaxing hops winterized solution – 1 Liter in about 30 seconds

This is the perfect compliment to your botanical extraction system, whether it be hydrocarbons, ethanol, or supercritical CO2.

The modular system includes everything you need to get started, including a vacuum pump, paper filters, and a fast filter system mounted in a cart frame with industrial casters, that can be easily moved by one person. The 1-5L system runs off of 110V and can be solar powered with an inverter for off-grid use.

The Fast Filter System allows you to process more product, in less time, saving you valuable labor and giving you access to more profits.

Features and Process:

– Different than Buchner: Fast filtering, can use variety of sorbents (paper, carbon, Zeolites, etc.). No glassware.

– Portable: Self-contained cart-based system is mounted on casters. Tilt and haul away.

– Cleaning: use ethanol to clean surfaces

– Construction: All stainless steel for filtering system.

– Maintenance: Clean surface after use. Change gaskets as desired.

– Vacuum: On-board included system.

– Certifications: FM approved (similar to UL).

– Filtrate (finished concentrate without wax): Collected in stainless collection vessel at bottom of cart. Use rotary evaporator to remove ethanol.

– Wax By-Product: Sell for cosmetics, consumer, surfboard wax, food coatings, polish, wood coating and end sealants, or making candles.

– Paper Filter: Discard after use. May use 24mm diameter filters in 5, 10, 20+ microns.

– Other Filter Media: Carbon, zeolites, and other media.

– Containment Loading Vessel: 1 Liter. Feed rate .5 to 2 Liter per minute depending on wax density.

– Collection Vessel: Up to 10 Liters

– Winterizing Solution: Ethanol to concentrate 10:1

– Scalable and Modular: Mount multiple units on our 24×48 inch footprint caster beam cart for up to 8x capacity.

– Add Capacity: Add capacity as your processing capacity grows.

 

Summary: Winterization (ethanol alcohol wash) is done after extraction process to remove unwanted compounds such as wax, fats, and chlorophyll. The primary advantage to winterizing is a more potent CBD (Cannabidiol). The disadvantage is that the final CBD product will contain fewer terpenes (flavor/smell). Terpenes can be purchased separately, or removed prior to extraction run on a CO2 process, and prior to winterization, and then re-added after winterization (final product blend). The Infinity Fast Filter is perfect for the winterizing liquid filter process. The self-contained cart system includes a on-board vacuum system for fast processing. Winterizing Process: 1. Ethanol 10:1 Concentrate  2. 4-24 hours of ethanol oil solution in freezer -20 to -80 C  3. Filter paper in filter, then put oil solution from freezer into filter and turn on vacuum pump.  4. 1L in under 5 minutes.  5. Remove wax from filter, and discard filter.  6. Rotavap to remove ethanol.  Filter Media (Available on Amazon): Paper Filter: removes waxes  Carbon Filter: removes color and other waste components.  Zeolites: Experimental absorber.

 

For more information, please contact Infinity Supercritical

How to Select a Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction System for Extracting Botanical Oil

Selecting a supercritical CO2 oil extraction system can be a daunting process, given all the choices that are now available. Here is a short, but comprehensive list of important features you should be looking for.

Criteria:

  • Speed of Extraction Process: The time it takes to complete a cycle, with all other factors being equal, will determine your ability to process more material and become more profitable. Batch systems will require you to load, and wait while the system processes the material, which can take up to 12 hours or more for some systems.
  • Quality of Extracted Oil: The manufacturer should provide you with lab results of extracted oil. You can also speak with customers in determining the consistency of oil, and concentrates after post-processing. Profitable machines typically will produce a crude oil, which is then further refined during a separate procedure termed post-processing. This is where waxes and other compounds are removed from the oil to purify the Terpenes, THC, and CBDs (Cannabis and Hemp).
  • Automation vs. Semi-Automation: Extraction professionals prefer semi-automated systems, because it gives them flexibility to produce a variety of products, from live resin, shatter (post processing required), crumb, vape pen oil, dabs, and concentrates. Semi-automation allows you to also run a infinity variety of recipes for the extraction process, including first removing Terpenes (without heat) and then continuing the process with heat for other extracted compounds. Automation is great for single variety processing, and mass production of oil. Limitations of automation include malfunctions with software (or updates), and the use of more CO2 than non-automation machines. Backpressure valves are needed for precise pressure control. Most automated systems require a connection to the internet. Semi-automated systems can be utilized in remote locations, without the need for a internet connection.
  • Beware of Expansion Systems: Most CO2 pumps are designed for a specific flow rate. While this can be varied to some degree, simply adding extraction vessels in 5L or 10L increments drastically changes the system dynamics. Most extraction systems are dialed in for a specific volume and flow of CO2.
  • Delivery Time: Most extraction systems are build to order. 2-4 weeks is a reasonable build time.
  • CO2 Recovery: Well build extraction systems will retain the majority of the CO2 in a holding tank or reservoir. Beware of systems that use commercial CO2 supply cylinders as the storage reservoir, since most suppliers of CO2 will not allow you to return or refill rental or leased bottles, if they contain any traces of botanical oil or residue. Efficient systems will vent off extraction and collection vessel CO2, which needs to be replace for each cycle. Expensive systems will have a CO2 recovery system, which adds to the initial cost, and can be a maintenance headache. In our opinion, a expensive recovery system is a waste of money.
  • CO2 Pumps: Closed loop systems require a robust method to pressurize and circulate the CO2, which is the solvent for the botanicals. There are liquid and gas systems. Both work effectively well, but the liquid system is a smaller footprint, easier to maintain, and provides a more efficient delivery of CO2. diaphragm gas pumps are large, required compressed air (noisy), and expensive to maintain. Efficient liquid CO2 pumps can be powered directly with a electric motor, which allows silent operation (less operator fatigue from no noise), and can have the CO2 heated as it exits the pump, which ensures even heat distribution in the botanicals. Pumps should have easy access to maintenance, and a good system of filtering before the pump, so that little to no carry-over (residual botanical oil which is sticky) reaches the pump. Expect to change the seals on a good pump about once a month, if proper machine operation is followed to reduce carry-over.
  • Training: Supercritical Co2 Extraction systems require proper training to operators for normal operating procedures, safety, and maintenance.

 

Advantages with Infinity Supercritical CO2 Botanical Extraction Systems:

-Simplicity: because our systems are not automated, you do not have to
worry about software updates, system shutdowns (in the middle of a run
due to power failure or software hickups), or problematic pressure
control.

-Full Automation: After consulting with more Cannabis extraction
professionals, we have decided against moving forward with full
automation. Our customers are getting such great results with a
semi-automated system, we believe it is not advantageous to deploy
fully automated PLC systems. After talking with several Apeks
customers, we do not believe that a fully automated system, is the
best choice for a production Cannabis oil operation.

-FlowBar: we distribute CO2 over the length of the extraction vessel,
and from the inside of the Cannabis to the outside. The result is a
much faster, and complete extraction. This means that you can run
through 2-4 times more cycles than with the same size competition.
With our system, you can do a extraction cycle in 1-3 hours. Faster
extraction means more profit, so your payback is even faster with our
system. To be conservative, just plan on a 3 hour extraction time, and
experiment with your actual extraction time.

-Electro-Static Precipitation System: we use the action of the CO2
flowing over food-grade Teflon to produce a passive static charge. The
tribo-effect charges the oil entrained in the CO2 gas so that it
sticks to the first contact, which is the first collection vessel.
Better collection equals less or minimal carry-over, which reduces
pump maintenance.

-Tube Size: we use 1/4 to 1/2 inch Swagelok tubes and components,
which allow better flow of the CO2.

-Silent CO2 Pump: we use a highly-modified industrial liquid CO2 pump,
which runs using a motor. Operation is silent. Our extensive
modification means very minimal maintenance, and seal replacement can
be done by removing the pump head (about 5 minutes), cleaning the
pistons (about 10 minutes), and replacing seals (about 10 minutes).

-No Noisy Air Compressor: we do not need, nor use, a external pneumatic air
compressor (or additional chiller to cool the compressor which gets
hot from use). Compressor is so loud, that most systems which require
it, will need a separate room because it’s so noisy. Noise produces
extractor technician fatigue.

-Swagelok Back Pressure Valve: we use a very precise BVP, which allows
us to achieve very accurate pressures. We do not use valveless
technology, which produces pressure swings.

-CO2 Preheat: we use a heat exchanger on our motor-to-pump gearbox,
which preheats the CO2 before it gets into the extraction vessel. By
using the heat (byproduct of the gearbox), we are conserving energy
and preheating the CO2.

-Pressure and Heat Zone Feedback PID: we use compact PLCs to control
the pressure (with a feedback loop via digital sensor) and three zone
heat monitor, control, and feedback.

-Less Complicated: the system we have is modular, on a sturdy
industrial bolt-together frame, with casters, and can be wheeled
through any standard door, hallway, or elevator. The modular cart is
24 inches wide, by 48 inches long, by 71 inches in height. You will
notice the clean lines, minimal tubing, and logical layout of the
components.

-Less Stuff Needed to Run: our system requires a liquid CO2 supply
(cylinders), and a small chiller. That’s it. No air compressor, or
items to support that compressor.

-Quality Extract: our customers who perform extraction, say that their
ultimate customers rave about the quality and aroma of the extracted
oil. The quality terpenes that are extracted and ultimately preserved,
make the end-user experience a quality one.

-New Technology: we’re working on a solid state chiller (bolt-on),
energy saver heating/cooling technology, acoustical ultrasonics, and
other advanced technology, which not only enhance the operator
experience, but will reduce cycle time, while increasing quality of
extract. The bottom line is to save you time, and increase production,
which result in more profit. We are also working on SDR (Spinning Disc
Reactor) technology which will allow continuous flow processing, and
without pressure or CO2.

For more information, please visit: http://www.infinitysupercritical.com

For extraction supplies, including chillers, rotovap, distillation, and vape pen supplies: Click here

Flash Chromatography for Separation of THC, Terpenes, and Cannabinoids

PDF Download Link: 20170206-infinity-supercritical-flash-chromatography

Distillation is commonly used to purify and separate liquids. In the Cannabis industry, this is typically done by thin film or simple distillation, which uses heat to vaporize (evaporate) components, which are then condensed into fractions. Those fractions (THC, CBD, and Terpenes) can then be recombined for a recipe, or signature oil which can be used for concentrates (edibles) or vape pens. The new technique is called Flash Chromatography. http://www.biotage.com/news/effective-cannabinoid-purification-by-flash-chromatography

sonic-extractor-hops-extract-20160707

What is Flash Chromatography ?

Flash chromatography is a method to easily separate complex mixtures of compounds. It is based on column chromatography, which is a technique to purify (separate) compounds based on polarity and hydrophobicity. Separate occurs between differential partitioning between mobile and stationary phase. Introduce a liquid (Cannabis oil extract) and this separation technique will result in THC, Cannabinoids, and Terpenes.

http://static1.buchi.com/sites/default/files/microsite/downloads/Process_Flyer_A4_en_final.pdf

How Can I Use This In My Extraction Process ?

If you already have a CO2 extraction system, you will need to winterize your crude oil, then it will be ready for Flash Chromatography. As you identify the components to separate, the machine will automatically identify and then target components to separate into different vials. You can then recombine these separations in to recipes (for example, 10 percent THC, 85 percent CBD, and 5 percent terpenes). Using this method you can make custom vape pens, or concentrates.

Starting a Cannabis Business | Access for Women | Startup | Business Plan

Infinity Supercritical LLC

Email: greg@infinitysupercritical.com

Cannabis Search Engine Series Starting a Cannabis Business

PDF Publications Search Engine This real-time PDF document search/retrieve search engine forms dynamic search engine lists and results using Filemaker.  Search engine displays results with both text and a image field of the .pdf page.

Search Complete. Starting a Cannabis Business search was updated in real-time via Filemaker on:

November 16, 2016

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Supercritical CO2 Extraction | Carry Over | Pump Clogging | How to Prevent it

Carry -Over

CO2 changes states at different temps and pressures. This gives us the abilitility to control very specifically what kind of solvent we are using, as well as, overall yield. So it is possible to lower settings to achieve a softer solvent extraction, or higher settings to get a stronger solvent extraction. The extraction process with CO2 makes it possible to control separator settings, that drop-out the extracted oil from the CO2 gas solvent. This can effect carry-over amounts as well as quality of the final product. To limit loss of collection and fractionation of both terpenes, THC, and Cannabinoids, you need to lower the pressure of the CO2 and entrained oil. As the CO2 expands, and drops pressure, a huge amount of temperature drop occurs, which necessitates the use of heat during expansion. For lower CO2 gas pressure, a heat exchanger or chiller can be utilized to lower gas temperatures on the back end of the collection vessels, which lowers the pressure.

There are a number to techniques to help reduce or eliminate carry-over. One innovation that Infinity Supercritical has developed, is using electrostatic precipitation. A small charge is introduced (passively) into the CO2 gas and entrained oil, which charges the oil and makes it stick to the nearest opposite charged surface (collection vessel).

Cannabis oil which is not collected (termed carry-over), will continue through the closed-loop system and can clog the diaphragm pump, or the liquid CO2 pump, which will required down-time and maintenance to change the spring energized seals, and o-ring seals. This is such a problem with many commercial extraction systems, that many operators have complete spare pumps which they can replace, so that the downtime of the processing is kept to a minimum.

Contributors: Clinton S and Infinity Supercritical Staff.

California Cannabis Production | Start-up Cultivation vs Cash Flow | Strategy

Read the PDF: 20170608-infinity-supercritical-california-cannabis

California Cannabis

We are starting to get lots of calls from California regarding cultivation and using our extraction systems for oil production and sales for January 2018. The current strategy is to put up cultivation, and then start extraction after harvest. While this may seem intuitively correct, it is the worst strategy for cash-flow.

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Start-up Cultivation Means Delayed Cash-flow

If you start with cultivation, you’re looking at 9 -12 months to begin getting cash-flow (in the process from building the grow-house to mature harvest). The time might be a bit better for pure indoor grow, but still a long time regardless. This means you will need a large amount of initial capital outlay, to build facilities, and during the grow. This is valuable time that can be better utilized.

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Start with Extraction of Oil for Cash-flow

 

The profit-makers out in the Cannabis industry have realized that while you can make money cultivating (which everybody is doing), faster access to cash-flow is from the value-added sector, of running extraction machines to produce live resin, shatter, crumb, concentrates for edibles, and vape- pen oil.

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Extraction Revenue

Don’t have your own Cannabis product ? Then check with your state regulations and purchase trim or other products from producers who do not have extraction facilities, and then work the value-added space. $50 a pound trim has the potential to get you more than $200 of oil extract. That’s a minimum of four times the value of the trim, and great cash-flow. Of course you will still need to look into the extraction license and other regulations, but this gets you started faster, and with less capital outlay.

Equity Versus Cash-flow

This type strategy gets you faster cash-flow and the all-important sales. This builds equity faster, and requires less initial capital. Starting with just a licensed extraction facility can provide you with a springboard of capital which you can leverage into your own indoor grow, or expanding extraction machinery and capabilities.

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Technology Review of Cell Lysis Methods

PDF Download: 20170718-infinity-supercritical-cell-lysis-methods

 

Plant Cell Pressure |Strength of Plant Cell Walls | Ways to Break Cell Walls

 

How to Break Down Cell Walls:

Mechanical:

-Grinding: Mortar and pestle, which is often done with plants frozen in liquid nitrogen.

-Beadbeating: Cracking open cells using ceramic or glass beads, typically done in suspension and in a vortex.
-Sonification: Using ultrasound with plant matter in a solution, by cavitation shockwave. -Homogenizer: Shear force by forcing cells through tubes smaller than cells, by rotor- stator (rotating blade) or outer layer shear (French Press).

-Freezing: Cell rupture from freeze thaw process. Can take lots of time.

-High Temperature (and Pressure): Cells walls are disrupted, but denatures proteins, and heat can damage cell contents. Typically by autoclave, microwave, steam, etc.

Non-Mechanical Methods:

-Enzymes: Remove cell wall by using naturally occurring enzymes.

-Chemicals: Organic solvents like ethanol (alcohol), especially for hydrophobic (doesn’t like water) molecules. Commonly used with shearing forces.
-Bacteria: EDTA, negative bacteria, to chelate cations that bore holes in cell walls.

REF: http://bitesizebio.com/13536/bringing- down-the-walls-part-ii-8-methods-to-break- down-cell-walls/

 

Cell Lysis Methods:
Reagent Based Methods:
-Fast, efficient, reproducible
-Can extract total protein or subcellular fractions
-Disrupts cell wall and or lipid membrane

 

Physical Methods:
-Expensive equipment
-Larger footprint for equipment

-Less reproducible

-Not compatible with high-throughput and small volumes

-Aggregation and denaturation of protein may occur
-Cells disrupt at different times

REF: https://www.thermofisher. com/us/en/home/life-science/protein- biology/protein-biology-learning- center/protein-biology-resource-library/pierce- protein-methods/traditional-methods-cell-

 

 

Tensile Strength of Cell Walls

Cylindrical Cell Shape: 100 atm or 1,470 psi

Spherical Cell Shape: 95 atm or 1,396 psi

Spherical Cell Shape: 30 atm or 441 psi

REF: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1074911/pdf/plntphys0 0593-0165.pdf

Plant Cell Vacuoles

The central vacuole (may be 80 percent of space) is a membrane bound sac which provides cell support and helps the plant function with growth.

Turgor Pressure: Vacuoles help to maintain and control the rigidity of the cell (structure),

by compensating the osmotic pressure from within the cell and pressure exerted from outside the cell.

REF: https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/vacuole.html

Additional Reading:

Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

REF: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740396/

 

Cell Disruption Using a Microfluidizer

Using a Microfluidizer versus a French Press using the same 20,000 psi back pressure, resulted in 92 percent breakage in 8 passes, versus only 50 percent breakge for the French Press in 7 passes.

REF: https://www.microfluidicscorp.com/sites/default/files/application-note-cell- disruption-publication-summaries.pdf

Practical Use of Continuous Processing in Developing and Scaling Up Laboratory Processes

Continuous flow reactors allow for better control of exothermic processing than do batch reactions, and allow for a more efficient and safe scale-up of rapid reactions in a smaller footprint.

REF: http://pubs.acs. org/doi/abs/10.1021/op0100605? journalCode=oprdfk

Build Your Own Brand Licensing

Infinity Supercritical is now offering the Build Your Own Brand licensing opportunity.

If you have a machine shop, or would like to brand your own Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction System for botanicals, Infinity is offering the following:

  • 10L Plans and Parts List
  • ASME Engineer Peer Reviewed and Proven System
  • Closed Loop and Certified in CA, AZ, NV, WA, OR, and CO
  • Machine Your Parts or Purchase Parts From Infinity and Assemble at your location
  • Enter into the Manufacturing Equipment side of Cannabis Industry
  • Typical Research and Development for this type of Equipment exceeds $1 Million
  • Typical Development and Testing Time for New Systems is about 2 years
  • Licensing Technology gives you Instant Access to Industry Sales
  • Optional Drop Ship from our Shop – You Sell and we Build and Ship
  • One Time Fee
  • Market with Infinity Supercritical Inside – Brand Recognition
  • With payment you can start building or selling immediately

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With the Build Your Own Brand licensing opportunity, you can customize the frame design and colors. The Infinity frame is completely modular and bolt-together for rapid reconfiguration.

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Modular Frame: Our Caster Beam frame allows you to configure your extraction equipment in many ways.

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Machining Parts: We can provide you with all the parts, or custom make parts for your system with our Vertical Milling Machine or our Omax Waterjet. We’ve already made the huge investment in the machines, now you have the opportunity to use them for your business.

 

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Quality Extracts: The Infinity Supercritical extraction system can provide extractions from any botanicals and provides a superior product.

Web Page Design and SEO Optimization: You can buy a page on our website, or build your own website to advertising your product. We also have a page optimizing SEO algorithm using Filemaker Database which can point tens of thousands of page links to your site.

Contact: greg@infinitysupercritical.com

Sustainable Production of Cannabinoids with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technologies

PDF Review: 20170815-infinity-supercritical-co2-cannabinoids-review

Source: https://repository.tudelft. nl/islandora/object/uuid%3Ac1b4471f-ea42 -47cb-a230-5555d268fb4c
Title: Sustainable Production of Cannabinoids with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technologies

ISBN: 9789085707301

The goal of this thesis was to develop an alternative extraction method of natural compounds of interest from plant material. In specific, the goal was to avoid using organic solvents as much as possible due to residual solvents problems, low selectivity, high energy consumption, and environmental worries.

The alternative method consists of using supercritical fluid CO2 to extract compounds from plant material. There are numerous advantages to doing SFE with CO2, including CO2 being nonflammable, relatively inert, inexpensive, the ease of removal of the solvent, the plant material being non- hazardous afterwards, the different solubility of compounds depending on the temperature and pressure of the fluid, and low critical temperature allowing for extraction of heat- sensitive materials without damage.
The downsides to using CO2 include it not being a great solvent for larger polar molecules and requiring the stream to always be under high pressure which lead to higher initial investment costs. The higher initial investment costs can be outweighed though by how cheap CO2 is and the fewer steps needed for purification.  The focus of the thesis is on the separation of phytocannabinoids (or cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant) from the plant material. There are over 60 different phytocannabinoids with the most commons ones being (-)-D9- tetrahydrocannabinol (D9- THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene CBC), cannabigerol (CBG) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). This study will focus on D9-THC, CBN, CBD, and CBG. Each of these compounds have their own medicinal effects, from pain relief and nausea relief with D9- THC, a sedative effect with CBN, convulsion, anxiety, and inflammation relief with CBD, and analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects with CBG.

The isolation of these compounds from the plant material is of high interest due to the drawbacks of smoking cannabis and different medicinal effects of each compound.

The production method proposed for cannabinoids with purities higher than 95% involves a pre- treatment step, where the acid forms of the cannabinoids are changed to the neutral ones due to better solubility, extraction using SFE with CO2, winterization of the extract to remove waxes, and then purification through centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC).

The cannabis plant strain used in this thesis is Bedrocan which contains around 18% D9- THC and less than 1% of other cannabinoids, thus the main focus will be on extraction of the D9-THC. CBN can be obtained through specific storage conditions to degrade the D9-THC into CBN. CBD and CBG can be obtained using the same process on different cannabis strains with higher concentrations of other cannabinoids.

CO2 becomes a supercritical fluid at temperatures higher than 31.1 degrees C and pressures higher than 1070 psi. This means that the CO2 can only be described as a fluid as it is indistinguishable between a gas or liquid. This is important because it allows for the tuning of the solvent. By changing the pressure or temperature supercritical CO2 can become more or less liquid-like with increasing or decreasing solvency power. CPC is similar to other chromatography techniques. It uses two immiscible liquid phases and uses a centrifugal field to force the mobile phase through the stationary phase.

Each compound has different interactions with these liquids and thus migrate through the phases at different speeds. Thus, they can be collected at the end of the column in relatively pure amounts. Decarboxylation of D -9-THC is necessary due to the acidic form found in the cannabis plant. Usually this occurs during combustion when smoking the plant, but when it comes to medicinal products it will likely need to be transformed without this step. The usual method for large scale decarboxylation involves organic solvents, basic aqueous solutions, and lots of energy, thus alternatives are preferred. One alternative is to pre-treat the cannabis plant before extraction.

When heating the plant material between 90 and 140 degrees C, the decarboxylation reaction from D9- THCA to its neutral form happens at near 100% selectivity. Since the process happens in a solid-state reaction, which leads to a catalytic process, the process could be estimated with a pseudo first order process. This reaction tends to happen at a lower activation energy than normally assumed possibly due to aliphatic and aromatic acids present as other plant constituents in cannabis. While adding strong acids seem to encourage this reaction and could decrease the activation energy, it causes toxic waste from the process which may be bad for other compounds of interest.

The solubility of D9-THC in supercritical CO2 was found for different temperatures and pressures. Below 1914 psi and 40 degrees C, the solubility could not accurately be recorded due to low solubility. In general, the solubility increases with pressure at all temperatures. At about 2175 psi, the solubility is found to decrease with increasing temperature, and above that pressure the solubility is found to increase with increasing temperature.

Some experimental values for D9-THC in supercritical CO2 from the data collected. At 42 degrees C, changing the pressure from 1914 psi to 3640 psi increased the solubility from by 4 times (0.20 to 0.83). At 54 degrees C, changing the pressure from 2030 psi to 3408 psi increased the solubility by around 6 times (0.33 to 1.99). At 61 degrees C, changing the pressure from 1987 psi to 3190 psi increased the solubility increased the solubility by about 7.3 times (0.32 to 2.33). At 72 degrees C, changing the pressure from 2117 psi to 3190 psi increased the solubility about 3 times (0.98 to 2.95).

At most of the temperatures and pressures evaluated in this study the constants created a good predictability for the solubility. The exception being at above 72 degrees C and low pressures.

The solubility of CBN in supercritical CO2 was found for different temperatures and pressures. In general, the solubility increases with pressure at all temperatures, but not as much as with D9-THC. Interestingly, the highest solubility was found at 53 degrees C.

The article concludes that CBN solubility in supercritical CO2 is different enough from D -9-THC that they could be extracted separately to isolate both compounds. This would include a two step extraction, there the plant material is first extracted at 53 degrees C and 1885 psi for CBN and then 2900 psi at the same temperature for D-9-THC.

The solubility of CBG in supercritical CO2 was found for different temperatures and pressures. In general, the solubility increases with pressure at all temperatures, but by a much less magnitude than the D9-THC. Also, the highest solubility was found at the highest temperature.

The article concludes that the solubility trends for CBG are similar to D9-THC, but the actual values are different enough between the two to extract them separately or through fractionation.

The solubility of CBD in supercritical CO2 was found for different temperatures and pressures. In general, the solubility increases with pressure at all temperatures. The difference in solubility between pressures is similar to CBN. Interestingly, the highest solubility occurs at 53 degrees C, like CBN.

The article concludes that CBD’s solubility trends are more similar to CBN and that they are different enough to D9-THC to be extracted separately.

When comparing all four cannabinoids, the difference in solubility can come from a couple things. This includes their melting point (with solid cannabinoids showing better solubility than liquid ones) and their chemical structures (due to CO2 having a higher affinity for non-polar compounds). Overall, CBN has the highest solubility in supercritical CO2. All of the solubility of the different cannabinoids in supercritical CO2 is on the order of 1-2g per kg of CO2 which place them at high enough for SFE.

An example is described to show how one could extract the majority of D-9-THC without other cannabinoids. In a cannabis plant containing 5% D9-THC and 6% CBD (Bediol strain), a first step extraction at ~1885 psi and 42 degrees C would extract 26 percentage of the THC and all of the CBD.

While the CBD would need to be purified, a large amount of the THC could be collected at very pure amounts using this step extraction method.

It was determined that particle size distribution of the plant material had little influence on extraction yields, and thus weren’t investigated.

The highest total yield (extract weight divided by starting weight) was 23.3 percentage and was found at the highest pressure and lowest temperature, 3335 psi and 40 degrees C respectively. This didn’t vary much from the differences in pressure, with 21 percentage being achieved as low as 2175 psi and is believed to be because the extraction was already being ran to completion. This was at flow rates of CO2 of 6 kg per hour for 3 hours. In terms of THC yield, the best yield was found at lower temperatures (40 degrees C).

In terms of time for extraction (at 2610 psi and 6 kg per hour of CO2), the maximum D9- THC yield was found at around 3.75 hours at 40 degrees C. This yield was 98 percentage. Compared to at 50 degrees C, where the maximum yield was reached at about 1.5 hours, however a maximum yield of 74 percentage is reached. During the extraction time, the D9-THC yield increases linearly in time at the same rate between the two temperatures. In comparison to hexane extraction, the D9-THC yields are about the same (85.3 percentage for CO2 and 85.9 percentage for hexane). The other cannabinoid yields were slightly higher with CO2.

The other cannabinoids were found to have the highest yields at 40 degrees C when varying temperature at 2610 psi. All three other cannabinoid yields decrease with increasing pressure at 40 degrees C, while D9-THC’s yield was stable over pressure ranges. This implies that the two step extraction method at 40 degrees C (first at 2175 psi and then at 2900 psi) could first extract the other cannabinoids and then extract the D9-THC, allowing for a more pure extract of D9-THC. This is consistent with what was stated before.

A winterization step could be avoided to remove waxes by having a two stage separator, where the CO2 to decompressed to a medium pressure to precipitate the waxes, followed by another decompression step to recover the cannabinoids. The exact temperatures and pressures would have to be tuned to the solubility of the cannabinoids in the CO2, but should be feasible. In this thesis, a winterization step was included with hexane. This involves dissolving the extract in hexane and freezing it to precipitate out the waxes.

The extraction curves found in this paper determined that the solvent to feed ratio required for extraction of D9-THC is about 0.7g of D9-THC extract per kg of CO2. This is the same for both 40 and 50 degrees C.

It was found that using CO2 as the stationary phase and a water/ethanol mixture as the mobile phase, that no adequate separation could be achieved. Same with CO2 as the stationary phase and a water/methanol mixture as the mobile phase. There are hopes to use supercritical CO2 as the stationary phase, but no commercial CPC machine can handle the pressures required for such a machine.

With the CO2 SFE process outlined, around 80 percentage of the organic solvents can be recycled and 96 percentage of the CO2 can be recycled. Also, the plant matrix after extraction is clean of organic solvent and can be disposed of much easier than with the hydrocarbon extraction. This favors the CO2 SFE process in relation to the environmental impact of the process.

In conclusion CO2 SFE can be used to extract cannabinoids from cannabis plant material. It is heavily favored economically, environmentally, and regulation wise compared to hydrocarbon extraction. The total amount of process steps is also lower than hydrocarbon extraction. It can produce 85 percentage D9-THC extract after a winterization step, which can be further purified. One method of this is CPC which can produce +99 percentage D9-THC. The cost can be largely reduced by having a lower initial cost of cannabis.

Profiting from Botanical Oil Extraction

PDF Download: 20170822-infinity-supercritical-co2-extraction-profit-review

Introduction: The market segment which is making money right now is oil extraction and concentrates. This might be cannabis oil (vape pens), hemp oil (CBDs), or in the nutraceuticals industry, phenols and metabolites. The later is mainly used in the supplement industry in tablet, capsule, and concentrate form (tincture – used to drop into tea, flavor drinks, etc.).

Oil extraction is a value-added segment of the industry, which is more profitable than cultivation, due to the limited number of extractors. Lots of cultivators and large supply, drive prices down. Limited extractors, and small supply, drive prices up.

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Research: The best strategy is to research and study the area you want to focus on, and which industry and consumer to target. If you focus on a niche market, you will have better results, than if you do what everyone else does.

Branding: Having your own brand will identify your product with consistency. It allows the consumer to quickly chose your product, and refer your product to others. Word of mouth is sometimes the best advertising, and best of all it’s free.

Steps to Profit

 

Step 1: Identify your botanical, product, and market. What product do you want to sell, and who is going to buy it ?

Step 2: Identify attributes to your product, and benefits of the botanical. Choose a brand name.

Step 3: Establish a botanical supplier and purity. Have a certified lab test your botanical sample, and indicate pesticide free, and available oil. Negotiate your best price on the botanicals, and insist on regular sample testing, and tracking from growth, harvest, and final delivery.

Step 4: Flavinoids. Do you want your brand product to have flavor ? Botanicals are flavored by compounds called terpenes, which can be removed in the extraction process. They can even be removed, and replaced, with a different flavor (such as removing a hops taste or smell, with vanilla).

Step 5: Establish your market network. This may include direct-to-customer sales (via a website or sales agents), for non-regulated items Amazon, or through retail organizations like dispensaries.

Step 6: Source and assemble your extraction process, including the extraction equipment and any post-processing equipment needed to put the oil or concentrate into a consumer ready format (i.e. vape pens, tincture, etc.). Get competitive quotes on equipment, and go see it in operation before you buy.

Step 7: Develop a comprehensive website, which includes ordering direct, publications on the product, including any scientific research. For fast set-up, use WordPress.

Step 8: Test run your production line, and provide free samples for a limited time.

Step 9: Price your product. A brand name will command a higher price than a generic product. A niche market will also bring higher prices. Do you want a one-time sale, or offer a subscription ?

Step 10: Return on Investment feedback. Set a loop in the chain of supply and sales that allows you to capture and analyze metrics of the cost of goods versus your profit. Adjust your supplier price, and sale price accordingly.

Summary: While this is not a comprehensive list of everything that needs to be done, this will get you on the right path. These steps are merely guidelines, that can get you on the road to profit. You may need to re-number the list, according to your priority and product development. Redefining markets, customers, and profits is a dynamic strategy, since none of those factors are static. Over time, you need to constantly innovate new ways to market and develop your product for a savvy consumer.

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Infinity Supercritical Botanical Oil Extraction Machine Which Uses CO2 as the Solvent