Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects

PDF: 20180517-infinity-supercritical-extraction-review-cannabis-essential-oil

Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects

1) This study, quote – examined the effects of essential oil from legal … hemp variety on the nervous system in 5 healthy volunteers – unquote.

2) Cannabis sativa L. has long been cultivated for industrial purposes but has recently become an additive, quote – in the cosmetics industry, as flavorings for beverages…, and in medicine – unquote.

3) Quote – hemp essential oil is a complex mixture of many volatile compounds, mainly monoterpenes,

sesquiterpenes, and other terpenoid-like substances. The main chemical components are myrcene, B-caryophyllene, limonene, a-pinene, B-pinene, terpinolene, and a-humulene – unquote.

4) Many of these constituents possess individual characteristics generally accepted to include: quote – antidepressant, relaxant, anxiolytic, sedative, antimicrobial, and antioxidant – unquote effects.

5) Previous studies have indicated that B-caryophyllene, the 2nd most abundant constituent of Cannabis Essential Oil (CEO), quote – may be useful in treating anxiety and depression – unquote.

6) The primary constituent in CEO is myrcene. Myrcene along with other monoterpenes constitute 57.2 percent of the essential oil.

7) This test offered a limited pool of subjects, employing five volunteers, but offered multiple suggestive results that indicate that further investigation would be warranted.

8) This trial asked subjects to first inhale sweet almond oil (SAO) as a control. Before, during, and after inhalation the subjects were monitored to collect physiological data as well as asked to describe their emotional and physical states. The same was then performed before, during, and after inhalation of CEO.

9) Subject data collected included: quote – brain wave activity and ANS parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and skin temperature, as well as the assessment of mood states – unquote.

10) The CEO used in this experiment was obtained through steam distillation which yielded 11 percent v/w.

11) The inhalation of each essential oil was performed by placing one milliliter of oil on gauze and subjects were to inhale the aromatics, quote – simultaneously with both nostrils – unquote.

12) Results of this study indicated that, quote – inhalation of CEO was correlated with changes in ANS parameters and skin temperature significantly increased – unquote.

13) Sixty percent of subjects showed an increase in heart rate while 80% showed a decrease in diastolic blood pressure during CEO exposure, but these results are only suggestive as they were not statistically significant.

14) Regarding the mood state investigation, quote – all subjects found the CEO pleasant- unquote. Collectively, subjects indicated feeling, quote – more calm, relaxed, and energetic.

15) While anecdotal and statistically insignificant, it is interesting to note that one study participant, who entered complaining of a headache, reported the absence of a headache during exposure to CEO.

16) Much of these observations may be explained by the exposure to myrcene, which has been shown in previous research to, quote – have a sedative, analgesic, and relaxing activity – unquote.

17) Observation of subject brainwaves before, during, and after CEO exposure suggested an impact similar to meditation.

18) The small study population used in this investigation limits the ability to draw broad conclusions, but it does suggest that further investigation would be valuable to better understand the effect Cannabis Essential Oil can offer physiologically and emotionally.

Publication: “Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects.”  Nadia Gulluni, Tania Re, Idalba Loiacono, Giovanni Lanzo, Luigi Gori, Claudio Macchi, Francesco Epifani, Nicola Bragazzi, and Fabio Firenzuoli. PDF. 2018.

Review by: SP

Swiss Bank Reserve, Gold-based Crypto Currency using Dapp Loom Network based LIB and IC Chip Precious Metal Recycling Stations using Supercritical CO2 Recovery Methods

PDF: 20180522-infinity-electrostatics-metal-based-cryptocurrency-blockchain

Infinity Electrostatics is working on adapting the Infinity Supercritical CO2 Extraction system to work with LIB (Lithium Ion Battery) recycling.

In addition, Infinity Turbine is also developing a similar Supercritical CO2 turbine system platform, that can recycle IC (integrated circuits) chip metal (silver, gold, cobalt, and others), while harvesting the waste heat for power.

Part of this work is developing a Dapp (decentralized application) for blockchain Loom (or new industrial blockchain) network applications that will allow Supercritical CO2 recycling systems to purchase blockchain cryptocurrency with the recycled silver, gold, cobalt, lithium, and other precious and semi-precious metals. This new app will have precious metal blockchain backing (reserves held in Swiss Banks), unlike current blockchain methodology. Third part confirmed gold/silver reserves will back the crypto currency in a Swiss bank. Shipments of metal actually occur, and recyclers are paid in cryptocurrency.

Unlike current blockchain, this gives access to metal recyclers to international currency, and is based on supply of reserves instead of imaginary currency, and gives the crypto currency some legitimacy. The new term is MBCC, or Metal Based Crypto Currency.

Miners are not tied to random networks, but part of the actual Supercritical CO2 recycling systems, with a dedicated A6 chip that is task specific on blockchain confirmation mining. These distributed applications will remap the world technology landscape. For more information on Dapps, Google or look here.

Why is this solution great for the environment ? This methodology does multiple tasks at once. First, it recycles metals, which would normally be landfilled, or abandoned. Second, it reduces pressure on virgin metal mining, and acquisition. Third, the recycling systems themselves are very energy efficient, and can power their own blockchain miners. For the cryptocurrency space, it provides a backing to a crypto-currency, which ties an imaginary unit to an actual reserve in a Swiss Bank. The reserves can be bought and sold in exchange for certificates, which provide paper tracking to the real metal exchanged. The actual currency is derived from the amount of recycled gold, so there is not a cap on valuation. This encourages recycling, and shifts the demand from virgin mining (which reduces the environmental impact and human labor abuses).

Infinity Supercritical 10L Fast Filter Comparison to the Drain Droyd from ExtraktLAB United Science – for processing winterized solutions

Infinity Supercritical 10L Fast Filter Comparison to the Drain Droyd from ExtraktLAB United Science


Two great systems that dewax winterized solutions.

The goal of fast dewaxing is to remove wax after a botanical oil extraction has been combined with ethanol, then put into a freezer. The wax solidifies, then needs to be removed from the solution. The purpose of a dewaxing process is to remove the wax quickly (which normally takes a long time through a traditional filter and becomes a bottleneck in larger processing operations). The resulting filtered solution is botanical oil extract concentrate and ethanol. After dewaxing, the solution needs to be run through a rotary evaporator to complete the winterization process.

The Drain Droyd can use positive pressure to increase flow, and has a larger filter bowl that can hold more liquid.

The issue with larger pours and holding is that the filter paper will get clogged fast, and it’s nearly impossible to use one paper filter for a pour more than a few liters.

Plus, the more solution that goes through a paper filter, the filter does its work, and accumulates wax, which prevents flow. That’s why it is recommended that anything more than a few liters of solution pour, you replace the inexpensive paper filter. Otherwise, the pour flow slows down, and the wax prevents flow. An overflow situation results in the filter becoming ineffective, and multiple pours of the same solution to filter out all the wax.

The Infinity Supercritical Fast Filter has a vacuum pump (built from off-the-shelf parts that are easy to replace if needed). That’s a $5,000 value.

Both feature stainless steel collection vessels, while the Drain Droyd has all stainless construction. The Infinity Supercritical Fast Filter uses food grade HDPE for both the pour filter bowl, and the table top, which has the added feature of giving the operator work space to hold pour vessels, paper filters, and a working storage space. The Drain Droyd requires an additional table to assist with the filter operation, and the optional vacuum pump is usually put on the floor next to the Droyd cart.

While the Infinity Supercritical Fast Filter is twice as big for its footprint, it has a self-contained 110V vacuum pump, pump motor, VFD, and breaker, as well as the table top (which can be expanded to 10L pour dual bowl filters). The industrial cart has the signature Infinity powdercoat green caster beams and 5 inch swivel lockable casters. The frame is 100 percent recylable, and can easily fit through any standard door, hallway, or elevator.

Both systems can use paper filters, and other filter media, depending on the components you wish to filter or remove from the solution.

Infinity Supercritical has also identified the Fast Filter as a great candidate for filtering high tech materials, such as graphene.

PDF Review: 20180501-infinity-supercritical-dewax-system-comparison-10L

With Infinity Supercritical Process Up to 20 lbs per day or 140 lbs per week Input: 10L CO2 System for Cannabis Oil, Hemp CBD Oil, Flax Seed, Oregano Oil, Annatto Seed and Hops Extraction Processing

Please visit our website for more information: Infinity 10L Subscription Special




With Infinity Supercritical Process Up to 200 lbs per day or 1,400 lbs per week Input: 100L CO2 System for Cannabis Oil, Hemp CBD, Flax Seed, Oregano, Annatto, Algae and Botanical Oil Extraction Processing

Infinity is offering a 100L system (10 x 10L) at a special discount price which can process around 200 lbs per day of botanicals. Please visit our website for more information:




Extraction of Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

PDF Review: 20180517-infinity-supercritical-extraction-review-bixin-attatto-seed-extraction

Extraction of Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

1) Annatto seeds are the product of the Achiote tree, grown primarily in the southern hemisphere. They are small, bright red, and contain the pigments bixin and norbixin.

2) Bixin and norbixin are, quote – carotenoids that vary in tone between yellow and red … used in cheeses, sausages, meats and candies – unquote.

3) There are three conventional means of extracting the pigments for use as natural colorants: quote – vegetable oil extraction, alkaline solution and organic solvent extraction – unquote.

4) Extraction with an organic solvent produces greater yields than vegetable oil extractions with, quote – concentrations, from 3.5 to 5.2 percent, being obtained – unquote.

5) The salt of norbixin is a water-soluble form of the pigment and is obtained, quote – by abrasion of the annatto seed exocarp in alkaline solution – unquote.

6) Norbixin can also be produced from bixin by placing it in an alkaline solution.

7) This study set out to test the viability of using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC CO2) as a medium for bixin and norbixin extraction.

8) Recent, quote – restrictions placed on the use of synthetic dyes by the World Health Organization – unquote, has lead to renewed interest in developing more efficient extraction methods for bixin and norbixin which, quote – are amongst those [natural dyes] most used in the food, pharmacological and cosmetic industries – unquote.

9) The use of SC CO2 offers the advantages of, quote – being an inert gas, non-toxic, non-inflammable and cheap – unquote. Being a gas, quote – under normal conditions, it is easy to separate from the solute – unquote, which is another huge benefit regarding industrial applications.

10) The low critical temperature offered by CO2 also allows for processing at temperatures moderate enough to avoid thermal degradation of volatile constituents.

11) This study sought to investigate the viability of SC CO2 extraction in three scenarios: extraction of the pigments from whole seeds, extraction of bixin from a pure sample of bixin, and extraction of pigment constituents from the surface of glass beads.

12) Early solubility testing showed that norbixin is not soluble in SC CO2.

13) Interestingly, quote – the solubility values for the bixin seed were substantially higher than those for the pure bixin, up to more than ten times higher – unquote. This indicated that the oils present in the seeds were acting as an efficient cosolvent alongside the SC CO2.

14) Trials involving the extraction of pigment constituents placed on the surface of glass beads showed little difference in solubility when compared to that of whole seeds which indicates that the insoluble solid portions of the seed do not play a significant role in extraction.

15) Another portion of this study investigated the solubility of bixin in SC CO2 as it relates to pressure and temperature. As pressure was increased solubility increased while temperature had a more specific influence. Quote – above 28 MPa, an increase in temperature at constant pressure contributed favorably to an increase in solubility, the opposite occurring below 28 MPa – unquote.

16) The authors conclude that the primary pigment, bixin, in annatto seeds can viably be extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide in an industrial process.

17) Specifically, quote – the high solubility values show that the supercritical fluid technology can be used industrially to extract these pigments, offering the advantage of being clean, free of organic solvent and accordingly apt for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries – unquote.

Publication: “Extraction of Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.” G. F. Silva, Felix M. C. Gamarra, A. L. Oliveira and F. A. Cabral. PDF. 2008.

Review by: SP

The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as Processing Solvent for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes

PDF Review: 20180516-infinity-supercritical-extraction-review-lithium-recycling

The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as Processing Solvent for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes

1) This article investigates the potential for Sub and Supercritical CO2 to be used to extract specific constituents of lithium ion batteries (LIB).

2) Lithium ion batteries are quickly becoming the standard power source for a wide array of consumer electronics, including cell phones, laptops, cordless power tools, and most importantly hybrid and electric vehicles.

3) The lithium in lithium ion batteries, quote – has no actual substitute – unquote, and its, quote – demand might exceed the global production by the 2020s – unquote.

4) Besides being a valuable material, better recycling processes must be developed to better utilize limited lithium resources to support future electronic production and advancement.

5) To further incentivize the development of advanced recycling methods, the EU parliament recently introduced strictest LIB recycling requirements to date: quote – Each Eu member state has to meet a collection rate of 45 percent and at least a recycling efficiency of 50 wt percent – unquote.

6) Most LIBs taken out of service have experienced cell failure due to aging. This has lead to a need for better post mortem analysis to better understand the cell aging process.

7) Quote – decomposition of the electrolyte is challenging to investigate due to its complex composition – unquote. Processes do exist to perform post mortem analysis, but none are ideal.

8) The need for better LIB constituent recycling and electrolyte analysis both have the potential to be improved through sub- and supercritical CO2 extraction.

9) Current recycling programs focus on, quote – the recover of heavy metals … and lithium itself… on the current collectors – unquote, but not the electrolyte which represents 10-15 wt percent of a typical LIB. The new EU directive will necessitate electrolyte reclamation.

10) In its supercritical state (above 31C and 74 bar), quote – CO2 has the density of liquid CO2 and the viscosity of gaseous CO2 – unquote. The physical properties exhibited are a combination of those characteristic of the gas and liquid phases, but most importantly, the supercritical state has, quote – greatly enhanced dissolution characteristics – unquote.

11) Supercritical CO2 is, quote – the most applied supercritical medium for extraction – unquote, often used in the food industry and other industrial manufacturing applications.

12) In most instances Supercritical CO2 is created by pumping a liquid or gaseous CO2 supply up to its critical pressure while applying heat to raise the temperature up to its critical temperature. The supercritical state is not reached until both the critical pressure and critical temperature are achieved.

13) Helium head pressure carbon dioxide (HHPCO2) is another method for achieving SC CO2. Quote – liquid carbon dioxide is compressed with a helium head pressure to 120 bar – unquote, to reach the critical pressure. Depending on the setup, additional heat application may also be required.

14) HHPCO2 allows for similar SC CO2 extractions, but may have some slight differences in efficacy due to the small concentration of helium dissolved in the CO2.

15) The authors describe a proposed method of introducing SC CO2 extraction into the standard LIB recycling process so that the electrolyte currently being destroyed or disposed of can be recaptured.

16) The article also details proof of concept trials that successfully demonstrated the ability to extract Lithium from LIB waste.

17) After proving the concept, the trail went on to investigate what aspects of the SC CO2 extraction were the most influential in increasing recovery. Their results indicated that increased pressure and increased extraction time were the two primary means of improving extraction yield.

18) As an analytical tool, it was also shown that SC CO2 could be used to extract quantitative samples from LIBs undergoing aging testing to better understand how test parameters were impacting the aging process. The SC CO2 derived samples offered greater purity than previous solvent extraction methods and avoided some of the potentially toxic exposure inherent in other methods.

19) The authors conclude that SC CO2 extraction is a promising method for improving the recyclability of LIBs, leading to a more sustainable LIB market in the future.

20) SC CO2 also offers a better analytical approach to post mortem LIB failure investigations which may ultimately lead to better LIB design.

Publication: “The Role of Sub- and Supercritical CO2 as Processing Solvent for the Recycling and Sample Preparation of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolytes.” Nowak, Sascha, and Winter, Martin. PDF. 2017.

Review by: SP

Paper Filter for Drain Droyd and Infinity Supercritical Fast Filter

Filter supplies for the Fast Filter (50cm) filter papers from Infinity Supercritical direct (in stock) or order direct from Infinity Supercritical Website:

Note: Shipping is $50 for any quantity, for each separate filter size.

Paper Filter 25 micron 50 cm qty 100


Paper Filter 10 micron 50 cm qty 100


Paper Filter 4 micron 50 cm qty 100



Evaluation of SDR Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals

Evaluation of Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals



Evaluation of Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals


1) This article describes a set of experiments that were performed to investigate the viability of implementing a Spinning Disk Reactor (SDR) to speed the production of pharmaceutical constituents.

2) It has been suggested that the SDR offers distinct advantages over the traditional Stirred Tank method of processing technology which is quote – simply scaled-up versions of the beaker in which the process was originally devised – unquote.

3) One downside of the Stirred Tank methodology is that the surface-to-volume ratio decreases as the system is scaled up. This induces inefficiencies that are not present in the beaker-scale process these systems are designed around. The largescale vessels may inhibit the naturally fast reaction times inherent in the composition.

4) For SDR viable reactions, quote – fluid residence times…are in the range of 1-5s compared with a few hours in a stirred vessel – unquote, offering the potential for significant process time reduction.

5) The greater mixing intensity offered by the SDR also has the potential to improve reactant concentration profiles as well as yield better product particle size selectivity.

6) An SDR in its basic sense is a horizontal rotating disk. The reactants in a desired chemical reaction are poured into a small well in the center of the top side of the disk. Forces created by the spinning nature of the disk move the reactants outwards in a thin film towards the perimeter of the disk, inducing significant shear forces along the way. These shear forces are what is primarily responsible for the great mixing intensity offered by the SDR.

7) SDR architecture also allows for precise temperature control. The housing walls can be heated or cooled along with the disk. The disk has fluid channels machined in which direct heat transfer fluid from the periphery of the disk towards the center and back out the shaft.

8) This heat transfer fluid path creates a counter current flow with regard to the thin film of reactants offering highly efficient and selectable temperature environment.

9) The trial investigated 6 types of reactions: (1) phase-transfer Darzen’s process (2) crystallization study (3) Knoevenagel reaction (4) condensation process (5) elimination reaction (6) exothermic condensation.

10) Due to the short residence times of 1-5 seconds, reaction types (3)-(5) were found to be not viable using the SDR. These reaction types, quote – displayed low conversions in the range of 0 percent to 10 percent – unquote, due to their low intrinsic reaction speed.

11) Reaction type (6) was found to be non-viable due to product selectivity which was, quote – significantly lower than that in the batch process – unquote.

12) Reaction types (1) and (2) were used to further investigate the impact of disk rotational speed, disk texture, and process temperatures on overall process efficiency.

13) While attempting to test different process temperatures it was necessary to use a heat transfer fluid other than water to achieve sub zero C cooling. In this case, Therminol 59 and Dowcal 10 were tested as possible options.

14) Heat transfer fluid testing indicated that not only the fluid, but also the disk material itself (316 SS or Naval Brass) had a significant impact on the heat transfer capability of the system.

15) This article concludes that SDR technology is viable and advantageous for certain chemical reaction processes.

16) Reactions quote – with species half-lives up to 5s, can be performed much more effectively in an SDR than in a stirred vessel – unquote, with up to a 99.9% reduction in process time.

17) It was also observed that higher rotational speeds generated better mixing and shorter residence times.

18) The authors calculate that the 15cm SDR, bench-top scale, that was constructed and used for their trails had the throughput capacity to generate quote – 8 ton of product per year – unquote.

19) While not a universal fit, this trial strongly supports the further development of SDR processes in the production of pharmaceuticals and chemical in manufacturing.

Publication: Paul Oxley, Clemens Brechtelsbauer, Francois Ricard, Norman Lewis, and Colin Ramshaw,“Evaluation of Spinning Disk Reactor Technology for the Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals.” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000, 39, 2175-2182

Review by: SP

Developing Redcedar Essential Oil Market in Minnesota: Economic Opportunity for Rural Development ?

Developing Redcedar Essential Oil Market in Minnesota: Economic Opportunity for Rural Development?




Developing Redcedar Essential Oil Market in Minnesota: Economic Opportunity for Rural Development?

1) This article examines the current market for Eastern Redcedar products, the availability of raw material in Minnesota, and the viability of developing industry based on Eastern Redcedar essential oil extraction.

2) Nationwide the market for Eastern Redcedar products is, quote – $60 million dollars in annual sales – unquote. This includes primary products such as dimensional lumber and cedar paneling as well as secondary products like mulch and essential oils.

3) Most jurisdictions classify Eastern Redcedar trees as a weed. Some go so far as to list it as an invasive species. Due to their broad climate tolerance and relatively quick growth, the Eastern Redcedar can be found covering much of the Eastern and Central United States.

4) Eastern Redcedar can reach sexual maturity in ten years and grow to be, quote – 60 feet in 50 years – unquote.

5) Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Arkansas are collectively home to more than 50 percent of the U.S. standing supply of Eastern Redcedar.

6) While not a top producer, Minnesota has 324,400 cords of Eastern Redcedar currently standing, representing 1 percent of the national supply.

7) Essential oils are, quote – the concentrated aromatic compounds produced from … a wide range of plant species – unquote. They are used in the food, beverage, cosmetic, and cleaning industries.

8) Essential oils are present in small quantities in their natural state but can demand relatively high prices do to their essential nature in long established product recipes.

9) Redcedar oil, also known as Virginia Cedarwood oil, quote – is recovered by several methods, such as steam distillation, continuous partial pressure, solvent extraction and super critical extraction –unquote.

10) Most Redcedar oil is currently produced from the lower value or waste portions of the tree, such as, quote – sawdust, waste shavings, old stumps, and chipped logs – unquote.

11) According to Klein, quote – the oil yield from eastern redcedar wood ranges from 1 to 3.5 percent, depending on the ratio of the heartwood to sapwood – unquote.

12) In one trial, a 20 hour steam distillation was able to yield 3.18 percent while a 6 hour hexane extraction yielded 4.01 percent for the same sample.

13) The market for most essential oils is dominated by a few large producers who have the ability to strongly influence the price. As of the publishing of the article, Virginia Cedar oil was selling for, quote – about $20 for 16 oz – unquote. Which was down $7 in two years.

14) The author suggests that entering the Redcedar oil market in a significant way would require a sizeable investment on the order of $1 million – $2 million for a large-scale distillation plant. At this scale, viability would require processing, quote – 50 tons of raw material a day – unquote, not a supply that is likely to be available in Minnesota.

15) The author goes on to suggest that a garage-scale entrepreneur might be viable especially if they were set up to work with or sell complimentary Eastern Redcedar products.

16) Overall, the author recognizes the value of Redcedar oil and the potential to create a viable business using the lumber industry’s waste stream as the raw material, be he cautions that Minnesota may not be the most advantageous location for such an endeavor.

Publication: Mohammed N. Iddrisu,“DEVELOPING REDCEDAR ESSENTIAL OIL MARKET IN MINNESOTA: Economic Opportunity for Rural Development?.” PDF. 2008.

Review by: SP