What Are Terpenes ?

What are Terpenes ?
Terpenes are found in the essential oils (flavinoids) of plants,
consisting of a large group of volatile unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Found commonly in conifers and citrus trees. In Cannabis,
terpenes are the oily compound, and the main building block
of resin that contribute to the flavor, scent and color of the oil.
The aeromatic nature of the Terpene give Cannabis its
unique smell. Terpenes are volatile molecules that evaporate
easily, and are oily compounds secreted by the plants
Trichomes. Cannabinoids and Terpenoids develop from THC
and Terpenes that infuse the plants flower tops,
share the same biochemical precursor (Geranyl
Pyrophosphate). Terpenes have the aroma, while Cannabinoids
are odorless.

In extraction, Terpenes can be extracted separately than the
Cannabinoids, and recombined at the end of the extraction
process. Terpenes are generally extracted in lower pressure
and no heat.

What about Terpenes during Decarboxylation ?
“ Besides cannabinoids, the cannabis plant contains a range of terpenes, which are the volatile compounds that give cannabis its distinct smell and may act synergistically with cannabinoids. Although preheating the plant material may release more of the known active (neutral) cannabinoids, it may simultaneously also cause loss by degradation or evaporation of components such as terpenes. Our tests were intended to better clarify the balance between desired decarboxylation and unwanted degradation. Unheated cannabis material was analyzed as a control.”
Source: Cannabis Oil: chemical evaluation of an upcoming cannabis-based medicine
Luigi L Romano, Arno Hazekamp
Department of Pharmacy, University of Siena, Italy
Plant Metabolomics group, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, The Netherlands

Cannabis Cannabinoids, Terpenes and Flavonoids


THC (Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)
Boiling point: 157° C / 314.6° Fahrenheit
Properties: Euphoriant, Analgesic, Anti Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antiemetic

CBD (cannabidiol)
Boiling point: 160-180°C / 320-356° Fahrenheit
Properties: Anxiolytic, Analgesic, Antipsychotic, Anti Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antispasmodic

CBN (Cannabinol)
Boiling point: 185°C / 365° Fahrenheit
Properties: Oxidation, breakdown, product, Sedative, Antibiotic

CBC (cannabichromene)
Boiling point: 220° / 428° Fahrenheit
Properties: Anti Inflammatory, Antibiotic, Antifungal

Δ-8-THC (Δ-8-tetrahydrocannabinol)
Boiling point: 175-178°C / 347-352.4° Fahrenheit
Properties: Resembles Δ-9-THC, Less psychoactive, More stable Antiemetic

THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
Boiling point: < 220°C / <428° Fahrenheit
Properties: Analgesic, Euphoriant

Terpenoid Essential Oil Components of Cannabis

Boiling point: 166-168°C / 330.8-334.4° Fahrenheit
Properties: Analgesic. Anti Inflammatory, Antibiotic, Antimutagenic

Boiling point: 119°C / 246.2° Fahrenheit
Properties: Anti Inflammatory, Cytoprotective (gastric mucosa), Antimalarial

Boiling point: 177°C / 350.6° Fahrenheit
Properties: Cannabinoid agonist?, Immune potentiator, Antidepressant, Antimutagenic

Boiling point: 198°C / 388.4° Fahrenheit
Properties: Sedative, Antidepressant, Anxiolytic, Immune potentiator

Boiling point: 224°C / 435.2° Fahrenheit
Properties: Memory booster?, AChE inhibitor, Sedative, Antipyretic

1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol)
Boiling point: 176°C / 348.8° Fahrenheit
Properties: AChE inhibitor, Increases cerebral, blood flow, Stimulant, Antibiotic, Antiviral, Anti Inflammatory, Antinociceptive

Boiling point: 156°C / 312.8° Fahrenheit
Properties: Anti Inflammatory, Bronchodilator, Stimulant, Antibiotic, Antineoplastic, AChE inhibitor

Boiling point: 217-218°C / 422.6-424.4° Fahrenheit
Properties: Sedative, Antibiotic, AChE inhibitor, Antioxidant, Antimalarial

Boiling point: 209°C / 408.2° Fahrenheit
Properties: AChE inhibitor. Antibiotic

Boiling point: 177°C / 350.6° Fahrenheit
Properties: Antibiotic, Anticandidal, AChE inhibitor

Boiling point: 210°C / 410° Fahrenheit
Properties: Antibiotic

Boiling point: 168*C / 334.4° Fahrenheit
Properties: Anti Inflammatory

Flavonoid and Phytosterol Components of Cannabis

Boiling point: 178°C / 352.4° Fahrenheit
Properties: Anxiolytic, Anti Inflammatory, Estrogenic

Boiling point: 250°C / 482° Fahrenheit
Properties: Antioxidant, Antimutagenic, Antiviral, Antineoplastic

Cannflavin A
Boiling point: 182°C / 359.6° Fahrenheit
Properties: COX inhibitor, LO inhibitor

Boiling point: 134°C / 273.2° Fahrenheit
Properties: Anti Inflammatory, 5-α-reductase, inhibitor

Techniques for Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Materials

PDF Publication Review: 20170901-infinity-supercritical-extraction-methods

Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials

Azmir, J., Zaidul, I. S. M., Rahman, M. M., Sharif, K. M., Mohamed, A., Sahena, F., … and Omar, A. K. M. (2013). Techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials: a review. Journal of Food Engineering, 117(4), 426-436.


This review will go over bioactive compounds in plants, their classification, their extraction via conventional and non-conventional means, and bringing bioactive materials from plant to a commercial product.

The most important factors in extraction techniques are the matrix properties of the plant, solvent type, temperature, pressure, and extraction time.

Conventional methods include more traditional means of extraction using solvents solvating power with different temperatures and mechanical means of mixing, while non- conventional include other ways to increase the solvating power and reduce the amount of solvent used, usually making them more environmentally friendly and more selective.
Most bioactive compounds found in plants are secondary metabolites, which mean they don’t contribute to the overall growth and development, but are believed by the plant and evolution to help the plant survive and overcome local challenges. The simple definition is any secondary plant metabolite that elicits a pharmacological or toxicological effect in humans or animals.

Some examples of this are floral compounds that encourage or discourage certain species of fauna to interact with the plant, or possibly toxins that dissuade herbivores from eating the plant.

Almost all bioactive compounds can be placed into three main categories; terpenes and terpenoids, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds.

Conventional ways to get bioactive compounds involved passing solvents through the bed of the plant in various ways, either through evaporation and then condensation, or direct passing through. Usually this involved hot temperatures which can degrade certain molecules, low ending concentrations, and long extraction times.

To decrease extraction times, increase yields, increase purity of ending product, and being more sensitive to the bioactive compounds, non-conventional extraction methods were developed which include: ultrasound assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction.

Ultrasonic waves cause a phenomenon called cavitation when traversing through liquids where bubbles are produced, grow, and then collapse. During this process the kinetic energy is turned into heat and can heat the bubbles to incredibly high temperatures and pressures till they collapse. This accelerates mass transfer and allows for more access of the solvent to cell materials in plant parts through breaking of the cell wall.

This method increases extraction efficiencies without the need of thorough mixing or hotsolvent. In most cases it leads to less solvent being used, lower energy consumption, better yields, and lower extraction times.

Enzyme-assisted extraction employs the use of enzymes to help free bioactive molecules possibly from hydrogen or hydrophobic bonding and uses enzymes like cellulase and pectinase to break the cell wall and hydrolyze structural polysaccharides and lipid bodies.

This type of extraction comes in handy when extracting fragile bioactive compounds from seeds and allow for water to be used as a solvent in certain processes that would need the higher solvating power of organic solvents.

Microwave-assisted extraction uses changing electric and magnetic field to impact polar molecules and heat them up, which increases mass transfer.

This technique allows for some selectivity in which molecules are heated and thus grabbed more by the solvent, decreases temperature gradients, and increases extraction yield of intact organic and organometallic compounds.

Pulsed-electric field extraction causes a potential through the membrane of the plant cells, which causes molecules to separate according to their charge. As they accumulate, they increase repulsion forces and can weaken the membrane to the point of breaking which increases the release of compounds from the plant matrix.

This technique allows for the release of bioactive compounds without increasing temperature at all and is chosen to increase extraction yields of highly heat sensitive compounds.

Supercritical fluids can be achieved when a compound is heated and pressurized past both it’s critical temperature and pressure and there is no specific gas/liquid properties. This means the fluid retains it’s gas-like diffusion, viscosity, and surface tension, and its liquid- like density and solvating power.

Normally, CO2 is used due to its low critical temperature (87.8 degrees F) and low critical pressure (1073.3 psi), but it does have some limitations due to it’s low polarity. This can normally be overcome by adding small amounts of a polar compound like ethanol.

Supercritical fluid extraction’s main

advantages is it’s high diffusion coefficient and low viscosity allows for high penetration into the plant matrix, the tunability of the density and thus solvating power to certain compounds, the ease of removal of the solvent via depressurization, low critical temperature (with CO2) and thus low impact on heat sensitive molecules, lower use of organic solvent, and reusability of the fluid minimizing waste.

Pressurized liquid extraction uses higher temperatures and pressures of usually organic solvents to decrease extraction times and thus decrease solvent use. It’s found to be quite effective and battles supercritical fluid extraction in the extraction of polar molecules.

Finally, some details on how we go from plant to a commercial product. First a plant species of interest in chosen through preliminary screening of traditionally used plants. This screening involves confirming the actual validity of their use for whatever physiological effect.

Next the toxicity of the plant is assessed to see if there are any side effects or other components that could cause issues with residual amounts from extraction.

Then, extraction of the plant sample and isolation of different compounds to high purity is done using the extraction techniques described above. From here biological testing is done on the individual components to find which cause the physiological response determined before. Sometimes when no clear active compound arises the combination of different compounds is tested to see if together they impart a synergistic effect.

Once an active compound or mixture is found, testing is done again first on animals and then moving to human studies to confirm the individual components affect, strength, and correct dosage for the desired effect.

Finally, after passing safety and toxicity studies as well as showing statistically significant benefits, cost-effectiveness and sustainability of industrial production is investigated to finally confirm a potential commercial product.

Infinity Supercritical Introduces Industry First: Organic Botanical Oil Extraction


Infinity is pleased to announce and industry first – organic oil extraction which does not use Butane or CO2. Using a food industry proven method called SDR (Spinning Disc Reactor), botanical oil can now be extracted at room pressure and temperature.

The benefits of a SDR system developed by Infinity Supercritical LLC (patented) are:

• Standard Room Temperature and Pressure Extraction

• Fast Reaction Time (measured in seconds)

• Continuous Feed Operation

• Uses Standard Distilled Water

• Organic Extraction (no additives to remove later)

• Industrial Volume Extraction (5-100+ lbs of input material per hour)

• Modular Compact System (can be built into a trailer or standard shipping container)

• Push Button Operation (no complex PLC or operator technique required – it just works)

The SDR can also be used in other industries, including the production of semi-conductor nanocrystals called Quantum Dots (QD).

This new systems provides a quantum leap forward in options available to botanical extraction production, by simplifying extraction technique (push a button) and monitor the continuous feed and flow. If Apple were to design a botanicals extraction system, this would be it.




Cannabis and Hemp Oil Processing – What is Carry-Over ? Why does my pump clog ?

Carry Over is a term used in Supercritical CO2 Extraction when the extracted oil is not collected after the extraction process, and cycles through the closed-loop system. Typically this results in pump fouling (clogging).

What is Electrostatic Precipitation (ESP) and why is it important with Cannabis Oil collection ?

Infinity Supercritical is the first in the industry to introduce its patent-pending electrostatic precipitation collection, which enhances the rate and amount of collection of the Cannabis Oil extract. This means that more oil is collected in the vessel where you can access it, rather than having the oil have the opportunity to go through the entire system, potentially clogging the pump system. Oil carry over is a problem with all extraction systems in the industry, and is the leading cause to time consuming maintenance, pump failure, and continual replacement of valve and pump seals.

Infinity Supercritical Uses ElectroStatic Precipitation To Assist In Oil Collection

800L Industrial Botanical Oil Organic Extractor by Infinity Supercritical

Infinity Supercritical is developing a 800L (100+ lbs/hr) industrial botanicals extraction system. This system uses common distilled water as the solvent, which provides a completely hydrocarbon or CO2 solvent free extraction method, which is the first organic extraction method to be introduced into the Cannabis industry.

The system is closed-loop and recycles the distilled water through a series of elegant, but simple, mechanical separation methods. The spent botanicals can be recycled and composed, or remediated through a add-on module which converts the plant matter to CO2 by using a patented system.

The system has other add-on high-tech innovation modules which can recover waste heat into electricity (Tribogen), a solid state chiller, ESP (electrostatic precipitation), and a Tesla disc pump. The system was developed, and uses the modular fluid handling device, which is commonly referred to as the Modular Block, which was termed an industrial Lego by the National Science Foundation.

The modular system has a ROI payback within days, when used for processing legal Cannabis trim in a licensed facility.

The system can also be used for the continuous production of QD (Quantum Dots) and graphene, which may be our future solar cell and battery technology. These are the same technologies that are being looked at and developed by Apple, Google, and Tesla.


Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction to Make Hops Oil


Email: greg@infinitysupercritical.com

Cannabis Search Engine Series Hops | CO2 Extraction | Oil Separation | Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction

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Search Complete | Hops | CO2 Extraction | Oil Separation | Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction search was updated in real-time via Filemaker on:

November 16, 2016

PDF Source:  01.pdf |  Hops and Hops Extract

PDF Source:  1.pdf |  Extraction and Fractionation of Natural Organic Compounds from Plant Materials with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

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PDF Source:  1378498284_2013 Hops Variety Manual.pdf |  Variety Manual Hops


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PDF Source:  A_Tadevosyan_15_eng_aa.pdf |  HOP HYDROPONICS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 

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Infinity Supercritical Automatic CO2 Pump Cleaning Device for Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction Machines – Never remove your pump head and clean in place

Infinity Supercritical announces a method to clean your Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction pump internal moving parts and seals using ethanol, without pump head removal.

Infinity Supercritical has developed a device which connects to your liquid CO2 pump, that will clean both your pump internal moving parts, and the seals, at the same time. Ethanol is pumped (using your liquid pump) closed-loop through the pump which dissolves any botanical oil build up.

The reclaimed oil from the pump can then be recovered using a rotovap. This pump cleaning device can be used with any Cat CO2 pump. Depending on the configuration of your liquid pump, the device may also be able to be used with other industrial CO2 pumps.

The main advantage of this type of closed-loop cleaning system is that you can clean the seals in place, without removing the pump head.



California Cannabis Production and Start-up Cultivation vs Cash Flow Strategy

Read the PDF: 20170608-infinity-supercritical-california-cannabis

California Cannabis

We are starting to get lots of calls from California regarding cultivation and using our extraction systems for oil production and sales for January 2018. The current strategy is to put up cultivation, and then start extraction after harvest. While this may seem intuitively correct, it is the worst strategy for cash-flow.



Start-up Cultivation Means Delayed Cash-flow

If you start with cultivation, you’re looking at 9 -12 months to begin getting cash-flow (in the process from building the grow-house to mature harvest). The time might be a bit better for pure indoor grow, but still a long time regardless. This means you will need a large amount of initial capital outlay, to build facilities, and during the grow. This is valuable time that can be better utilized.


Start with Extraction of Oil for Cash-flow


The profit-makers out in the Cannabis industry have realized that while you can make money cultivating (which everybody is doing), faster access to cash-flow is from the value-added sector, of running extraction machines to produce live resin, shatter, crumb, concentrates for edibles, and vape- pen oil.


Extraction Revenue

Don’t have your own Cannabis product ? Then check with your state regulations and purchase trim or other products from producers who do not have extraction facilities, and then work the value-added space. $50 a pound trim has the potential to get you more than $200 of oil extract. That’s a minimum of four times the value of the trim, and great cash-flow. Of course you will still need to look into the extraction license and other regulations, but this gets you started faster, and with less capital outlay.

Equity Versus Cash-flow

This type strategy gets you faster cash-flow and the all-important sales. This builds equity faster, and requires less initial capital. Starting with just a licensed extraction facility can provide you with a springboard of capital which you can leverage into your own indoor grow, or expanding extraction machinery and capabilities.


Supercritical CO2 Extraction Carry Over – How to prevent CO2 pump clogging

Carry -Over

CO2 changes states at different temps and pressures. This gives us the abilitility to control very specifically what kind of solvent we are using, as well as, overall yield. So it is possible to lower settings to achieve a softer solvent extraction, or higher settings to get a stronger solvent extraction. The extraction process with CO2 makes it possible to control separator settings, that drop-out the extracted oil from the CO2 gas solvent. This can effect carry-over amounts as well as quality of the final product. To limit loss of collection and fractionation of both terpenes, THC, and Cannabinoids, you need to lower the pressure of the CO2 and entrained oil. As the CO2 expands, and drops pressure, a huge amount of temperature drop occurs, which necessitates the use of heat during expansion. For lower CO2 gas pressure, a heat exchanger or chiller can be utilized to lower gas temperatures on the back end of the collection vessels, which lowers the pressure.

There are a number to techniques to help reduce or eliminate carry-over. One innovation that Infinity Supercritical has developed, is using electrostatic precipitation. A small charge is introduced (passively) into the CO2 gas and entrained oil, which charges the oil and makes it stick to the nearest opposite charged surface (collection vessel).

Cannabis oil which is not collected (termed carry-over), will continue through the closed-loop system and can clog the diaphragm pump, or the liquid CO2 pump, which will required down-time and maintenance to change the spring energized seals, and o-ring seals. This is such a problem with many commercial extraction systems, that many operators have complete spare pumps which they can replace, so that the downtime of the processing is kept to a minimum.

Contributors: Clinton S and Infinity Supercritical Staff.