How to Lose Money in the Cannabis and Hemp Industry – 10 Easy Steps – How Not to Make Any Profit – Follow the Herd


Ever wonder who is making any money in the cannabis industry ? Here are some easy steps to follow, to lose money quickly.


1. Have a Outdoor Grow:

Produce one crop per year, susceptible to pests, theft, Mother Nature, drought, and seasonal price drops at harvest time due to over supply, this is the number one way to lose money. Currently, the market is saturated with too much supply, which drives prices even lower. Consider alternatives like a indoor grow, and with a variety that allows multiple harvests every 6 weeks. Focus on a plant strain that has a short maturity and produces good quality oil extracts. Let the outdoor cultivators sell the flower, and lose money. Buy the trim, and process into oil. Lab test to be sure it’s pesticide free.


2. Do What Everybody Else is Doing:

Run with the herd, and they’ll steer you into oblivion. The best way to lose money, in a market saturated with product which drives prices lower, is to do the same thing everybody else is. Complementary, don’t combine resources with your local producers, since you may get a comparative advantage by combining forces to get better discounts for supplies, or combining funds to purchase a extractor. Just selling the flower won’t make you money. Buy the trim, and process into oil extract for up to a 4-to-1 value added.

Build a Brand – Set Yourself Apart From Others

3. Make BHO Extractions:

BHO is dangerous to process with, since the solvent is typically butane or propane (which is very explosive). Closed loop hydrocarbons produce huge amounts of static electricity, and the resulting corona discharge will make an explosion. Some of the solvent will make it into the product, which does not have desirable medical effects for the buyer (nose burn and heart pains). Even worse, it does not have a good shelf-life. You need to sell and use the extract within a few weeks, or it goes bad. It’s cheap to produce, and is very typical of the low-end junk extract you’ll find in the market.

4. Buy an Expensive Supercritical CO2 Extraction Machine:

Like a Waters or Apeks. They run great, but you’ll spend so much time paying them off, the ROI in a saturated market will unpleasantly surprise you. Plus, since they’re automated, expect a release of CO2 anytime there’s a software issue. Great machines, at a huge price. Opt for other fantastic alternatives in the CO2 space like Infinity Supercritical. Don’t buy on promised yield, buy on the ability to extract. If you only have a 2 percent oil in your trim, how can you get a 17 percent yield ? Don’t buy claims, buy results.

5. Don’t Buy a Industrial Supercritical CO2 Extraction Machine at a Reasonable Price:

There are plenty of great machines, at a price that is affordable, with great payback, and produce a superior product. Instead of a automated machine, opt for a semi- automated machine which gives you more control over your processing extract, like Infinity Supercritical. Buy a machine with a proven lab and testing development program, and one that can process fast, using technology instead of increasing flow. Buy a machine that has a good collection efficiency, or you’ll be cleaning the pump every day.

An Infinity Supercritical CO2 Extraction Machine is an Affordable Way to Make Extracts

6. Don’t Produce a Custom Extract:

The best way to lose money is to just sell crude oil from your extractor. If you want to leave the herd behind, develop your own custom extract recipe and product. Develop a brand, and provide free samples to dispensaries. Build that reputation for quality and taste. Be sure to lab certify and test all incoming botanicals, especially trim. Test for pesticides (you want pesticide free) and oil content. Base your buying price on those two factors. Low oil content = low price. Target trim around $50 a pound for 8 percent oil content.

Infinity Supercritical 10L CO2 Oil Extract

7. Don’t Put in a FogPonics Indoor Grow System:

Other than growing outdoors, to lose the most amount of money, start a indoor grow which doesn’t use aeroponics, and uses lots of HID lights, not optimized for plant per square foot. The relatively new kid on the block is FogPonics. This highly efficient grow system is based on optimizing grow conditions for healthy roots and canopy, while minimizing worker interaction, light power, HVAC power, and nutrient costs. It has the best wattage per gram output anywhere. Using a fast growing strain like Cinderella, increases production to a 5-6 week rotation to maximize oil output.

9. Don’t Process Extract From Trim:

Just sell the raw trim, to lose the most amount of money. If you process trim for vape pen or concentrate extract with Supercritical CO2 (which has a long shelf life), you may be able to make 4 times return on the purchase of the trim per pound. In some areas, the comparative advantage is even higher than 400 percent. Again, be sure to lab test for pesticides and available oil. Base your buy price on the available oil.

Trim Can Provide a High Value Extract – But Test it First for Pesticides and Available Oil Content – then Buy Trim at a Fair Price

10. Don’t Research, Educate, and Make Yourself More Knowledgeable:

The best way to lose more money is to be uninformed. Don’t ask questions. Don’t ask dumb questions. Don’t seek better and more efficient ways to make money, while spending less time doing it. Don’t have a plan or strategy. Don’t have a backup plan when something doesn’t work. Don’t have a methodology. Try not to innovate and try not be creative. When you’re following the herd, all you have to do is follow, it’s simple. On the flip-side, you have nothing to lose by educating yourself. And everything to gain.

Test Your Extract

11. Listen to Media and your Competitors who Provide False Information:

Listen to the media who receives misinformation from the source, and all of the other misinformation that the herd puts out there. The surest way to kill competition, is to lead them down the path of losing money. Keep in mind there is no regulation to bad data, poor sources, and false information, and lies in the industry. Be keenly aware of Social Media Trolls, which many manufacturers use to boost false-positive reviews of equipment.


The best way to lose money in the Hemp and Cannabis industry is to do what everyone else is doing. The herd isn’t making any money, why should you ?If you don’t have a niche market, find one. If you don’t have a niche product, make one. If you don’t have a niche method, create one. If not, you’re guaranteed to lose money.

Infinity Supercritical Introduces Hemp Processors Special: 100L System $390000

Have lots of hemp to process ? Then consider our 100L equivalent – the 10 pack (10 x 10L systems). With an aggressive extraction schedule, you can process up to 200 pounds per day of hemp with this package. Price for the 10 pack: $390000.

Please visit our website for more information: Infinity 100L Hemp Processors Special




It’s the Flow Rate Stupid. Bigger flow rate is better right ?

Or how not to extract oils: 1. Turn up the flow. 2. Don’t collect the oils. 3. Clog your pump.

PDF: 20171125-infinity-supercritical-its-the-flow-rate-stupid

How to tell if a company hasn’t tested their equipment, or if they haven’t tested to improve yield: Claim High Flow Rate.

What’s that you say ? It’s not the flow rate that matters, it’s the permeability of the CO2 into the botanicals, and the the availability to harvest the extracted oil. Now you know more than most of the upstart CO2 Extraction companies out there.

Why ? Because we’ve tested these parameters over the past three years. If you haven’t tested your machine, then you won’t know that flow isn’t the key, and it can actually be a Pandora’s Box of bad tricks.

Infinity Supercritical 10L CO2 Oil Extract

Permeability of Cannabis and Hemp Which Allows CO2 to Extract Oil:

It’s not the flow of the solvent (CO2), but how it interacts with the botanicals. In one example, you can have a high flow rate, and that flow goes around the outside of the Cannabis (if introduced in one end of the extraction vessel, and exits the other), which leaves the core of the botanicals under exposed to solvent. That’s why most companies reverse flow in their extraction vessel – because they have incomplete saturation or permeability. The CO2 as a solvent needs proper distribution through a batch reactor system.

Sight Glass To View CO2


Once you’ve extracted that precious oil, you need to collect it. The problem with high flow is that without a proper way to slow it down (or spin out the oil), you’re not going to collect the oil, and it’s going to blow-by your collection vessel(s) and clog your pump. How can you tell if a system that doesn’t collect oil properly ? If the pump is constantly being clogged. Solution: slow down the flow, and charge the entrained oil with a static cling, so that it does not go into the pump. We do that by ElectroStatic Precipitation (ESP). We have one customer who has run his machine on a daily basis, and hasn’t needed to clean the pump in over 2 months.

Proper Maintenance Keeps Pump Valves Clean

How To Insure Your Machine Runs Properly:

One word – maintenance. If you are not going to take care of your machine, I promise you it will fail, you won’t have proper extraction, or even worse, you’ll lose valuable extracts (not to mention time). Of course, it goes without saying that your operator must have proper training, and needs to run the system for success (we suggest a learning curve on high-oil-content hops). Running with this methodology gives the operator confidence, and reinforces a positive learning curve.

Pump Flow and Speed: At first we had a high flow rate, and noticed everything mentioned above. It wasn’t until we found a way to slow down the flow, and properly harvest oil, that our yield and time to process improved greatly.

It’s typical for larger vessel manufacturers (and start-ups) to boost flow, in order to compensate for improper solvent (CO2) distribution in a large vessel. Go big, or go home, right ? Wrong. You need to properly introduce and distribute the CO2 throughout all of the cannabis, to efficiently extract the oil. This can’t be done with sheer flow rate alone.

How to Spot a Start-up: Those who claim high flow rate, without any mention of how to collect the oil.

Anybody pre-buying a new unproven system (that hasn’t been tested for a good period of time), is buying a headache.

Nikola Tesla started with a theory, then tested it. That methodology worked well. We use his AC system, electric motors, and yes, he was the inventor of radio. Thomas Edison just did trial and error (thousands of times for a light bulb). Be a Tesla, not a Edison.

Test, Test, and Test: A great CO2 manufacturer will always test, and keep testing their machine. And they will always look for technology to improve its performance. A good builder will want to improve customer satisfaction, and customer experience. Testing is the only way to improve your product. This applies on the extraction process as well. Get to know your machine and test with hops. Experiment with varying pressures, temperatures, times, configurations, etc.

Test Your System And Test The Extracts

Extract Color: One of the good ways to see how well a extractor is performing, is to look at the extract color. For Cannabis, you want that peanut buttery, honey-like, yellow-orange color and consistency. If you are trying to extract live-resin, or other extract specific components, you may have other textures and color. But for 99 percent of you out there extracting for the vape pen and concentrate market, you want the yellow-orange color. If you are extracting a brown oil, you need to look at the temperature, pressure, or the machine parameters.

Cannabis Oil Extract

It’s not the rate of the flow that matters, it’s what you do with it:

If you have a high flow into a large batch extraction vessel, chances are good that there will be partitions in the vessel that don’t get flow, hence the term “soak” time. That is time needed to soak all of the botanicals. In a improperly designed system, a long soak time is needed to release the oil into the solvent flow stream. Smaller extraction vessels will result in even and better solvent distribution, than large batch reactors. Infinity uses a FlowBar, which is the best method to distribute the CO2 solvent along the entire length of the extraction vessel.

Proper CO2 Solvent Distribution and Collection Determines Cycle Time

Flow rate doesn’t determine extraction cycle speed:

The integrated system and operator determine the run time. If your system is designed properly, the solvent (CO2) will extract the oil (with temperature and pressure) by distributing the solvent evenly through the cannabis, and (hopefully) it will be collected in the collection vessel. High flow rate can create blow-by, and the oil may end up in the pump. The operator has a huge factor in this, even in automated systems. A improperly trained operator (or no training at all), may negate any system design, and lead to a consistent failure rate, with little oil.

Integrated CO2 Solvent Distribution and Collection System

How Do You Spot A Improperly Designed or Operated System ?

Look for oil extract (called “carry-over”) in the pump. The leading cause of pump failure (and maintenance) is extracted oil which is not collected in the right place – the collection vessel. A poorly trained operator can foil even the smartest systems, and force oil into the pump. The three best methods to insure fast cycle and a clean running pump is to properly distribute the CO2 in the extraction vessel, harvest all the oil in the collection vessel, and have proper operator training. Infinity uses a FlowBar for proper CO2 flow, and TriboTube for electrostatic precipitation to harvest oil.

Oil Found in the Pump Indicates Carry-Over and Improper Collection

Experimentation – Repeating Success Leads to Not Duplicating Failure:

Once you have a good handle on your system operation, use a low cost, oil rich botanical to experiment with cycle times with your system. We use hops for the botanical. Always log your experiments and results. Infinity has develop a simple database log for this purpose (works with any machine). This allows you to experiment with different recipes, and see which method produces the best results. Some automated systems already have these, however the pro’s will tell you they prefer semi-automated systems so they can have more control over the cycle.

Infinity Database Logger – Use With Any Machine To Log Your Run Results and Parameters
Practice CO2 Extractor Runs Using Hops – With Known Oil Content

30/30 and 45/45 Cycle Experiment:

Using our FlowBar, we started to experiment with hops and a cycle time of 30 minutes on, stop the machine and remove the botanical basket, put it back in, then run for 45 minutes more. What we found was really interesting. It turns out that with proper solvent distribution, most of the oil is extracted in the first part of the cycle, or 30 to 45 minutes. If a manufacturer claims fast extraction times, ask to see testing results on the website. In the cannabis industry, there is lots of talk. Ask to see the proof.



In conclusion, don’t trust the marketing hype.

If a new system hasn’t been tested, and you don’t see run results on the website, then you’re buying a system that hasn’t been thoroughly tested. The important factor with flow is how it interacts through the cannabis to precipitate out the oil, and it has to be at a rate which can easily have the oil separated (harvested) from the CO2 in the collection vessel. If the sticky, extracted oil, makes it to the pump, then it’s too late. All of these observations can only be learned through experience, and many runs.


Infinity Supercritical Introduces Extraction Machine Test Datalogging Software

Infinity Supercritical has available (as a free download) a database that allows supercritical CO2 extraction machine operators to log run parameters and extraction results data. This data is crucial for developing new recipes and duplicating successful extraction runs. The database is run off of Filemaker software, and is a customizable solution, which allows entry of written data, images, sounds, and video. The solution will run with Windows/MAC and on iOS devices (iPhone and iPad) using Filemaker Go (free app). To download the free solution, please visit the Infinity Supercritical website.

Data Entry Page of Infinity Database
Example of Image Storage in Infinity Database
Example of Chart Data Storage in Infinity Database

Infinity Supercritical Announces Delivery of 10L CO2 Botanical Processing Machine to HempAmericana Inc. (HMPQ)

SEATTLE, November 17, 2017 (GlobeNewsWire) — Infinity Supercritical LLC, a leading manufacturer of botanical extraction equipment, is pleased to announce that it has delivered a 10L Supercritical CO2 Botanical Oil Extraction Machine to HempAmericana Inc. (HMPQ). The system was completed and delivered with a chiller last month. The Infinity system will be the first CO2 extraction system in their new facility. See more at:

The Infinity Supercritical 10L System is unique in that has the shortest cycle time from its Flowbar (consistent and better flow of CO2 solvent through the botanicals) and its patent pending ESP (electrostatic precipitation). These industry innovations provide fast extraction of oils from botanicals.

Hemp CBD Isolate Prices Strong: In recent discussions with the Hemp industry, the current demand for Hemp CBD isolate is very strong (both domestic and international), and current purchase contracts are around $8000 for 1 kilogram (about $30 per gram). The isolate is a processed product from the Hemp crude oil (the oil which is extracted in the CO2 machine). Hemp CDB isolate has many healthy uses. The Infinity 10L machine is capable of 10 Liters of volume of Hemp flower input per cycle. This can amount to anywhere from 20-35 pounds input per day, depending on the weight of the Hemp (weights will vary depending on density of the material).

Market Growth:  According to The Hemp Business Journal, they “estimate that hemp industry sales reached $688 million in 2016, representing a 22% compound annual growth rate. By 2020, the same researchers believe that the hemp industry will expand to more than $1.8 billion, driven primarily by the rise of hemp-based cannabidiol (CBD) products. These products could make a dent in the $17.7 billion opioid market, especially given emerging research and renewed political pressure.”

Infinity Offers Continuous Hemp Processing Machines: For larger processing requirements, Infinity offers its new Spinning Disc Reactor (SDR) processor. This is the Hemp industry’s first organic method of oil extraction using distilled water as the solvent. No CO2 is required.

The new method involves a spinning disc reactor system which is being introduced into the industry for the extraction of oil from cannabis and hemp. The oil extract, called a concentrate, can be used in vape pens, edibles, and further processed into CBDs for medical and health purposes.

SDR – Efficient Extraction On-Demand: The system is so efficient that the process takes a few seconds, instead of hours or days, which is common in the industry now. In addition, the system uses distilled water as the solvent, instead of commonly used CO2, ethanol, or butane.

SDR – The Only Continuous Feed Hemp CBD Oil Extractor on the Market: The SDR equipment is modular and can be scaled up to any size. With a continuous feed system, different botanicals or varieties can be processed on-the-fly. Legacy batch systems can only process one botanical or variety at a time. As a continuous feed (more than 50 pounds per hour input of Hemp) continuous flow process, batch systems are now obsolete. The smaller footprint results in lower initial acquisition, maintenance, and operational costs. The added benefit of a smaller continuous feed system is more efficient use of energy.

SDR Botanical Processing and More: This process technology can also be used in other industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, nutraceuticals, and algae oil extraction. In the high-tech sector, the process can produce Quantum Dots, which have been identified as a future solar cell technology. With a spinning disc reactor, (SDR) perovskites can be commercially manufactured, with a low cost, continuous feed, production format, which can then be used for continuous, printable, flexible, thin film solar cells, and other complex mixing applications.

Infinity Supercritical LLC develops and markets innovative botanical oil extraction systems. Emphasis is placed on developing new technology to reduce extraction time, and producing a superior oil product, maximizing extracted antioxidants, terpenes, and nutrients. Industries served include cannabis, hemp, and hops. Please visit for more information.

Infinity Supercritical 10L Fast Extraction System – Delivered to HempAmericana Inc (HMPQ)

New Power Generation Technology – Supercritical CO2 Turbine

Review of PDF: 20171117-infinity-turbine-3D-waste-heat-energy

Developing Power Generation Technology For Low Grade Waste Heat Above 31 C or 89 F


Utilizing low grade waste heat with supercritical CO2 is a Pandora’s Box for developers, mainly because of the high pressures involved. High pressure means expensive engineering and components. The best methodology is to develop smaller working CO2 turbine prototypes, and learn lessons on a small scale, with less costly results. Infinity has developed a platform to do this prototyping, using a modular cart, high pressure components, and a turbine that fits in a off-the-shelf high pressure filter housing.



Traditional Versus Fast Track Development

Traditional steam turbine development was slow and expensive. Conventional turbine development today may involve computational flow, CAD/CAM, and other tools which reduce development time, however there is still a trial-and-error testing period. Our methodology is to use 3D printing to decrease the testing period by first doing a plastic print to test on air and parts fitting, then do a metal 3D print, or more conventional vertical milling or waterjet machining for the turbine rotor, stator, and housing parts.


3D Turbine Generator Development

Using a 3D printer can greatly reduce the time to machine and test turbine designs. There are limitations with designs over 3 inches for metal 3D prints however. We’ve found that our prints using a ExOne metal additive system resultings in poor tolerance, from the shrinking of the metal during the sintering phase (heat curing oven). With a six inch and above rotor, we have found that additional post processing needs to be included for balancing the rotor, or finish.


Solid State Turbine

Retrospective of steam, rankine, organic, and supercritical cycles, the Holy Grail of prime movers would be a static turbine, with no moving parts. The cost and maintenance reduction, would then move the price point to such a level which would make power more affordable on any scale. To that end, Infinity is developing a method to generate electrostatic electricity, from the expansion of CO2 (which goes supercritical at 31 C or 89 F). This proess would reduce the footprint and costs by 100 times.


What Does the Future Hold ?

Converting low grade waste heat to power allows for point-of-use power generation, and access to solar thermal, geothermal, industrial waste heat, and computer server waste heat. The ability to utilize the waste heat in a solid-state turbine, with no moving parts will allow cost-effective power generation at any scale.


For more information on the Infinity Turbine Supercritical CO2 Filter CO2 Turbine Generator: Infinity Turbine Website

More information on Supercritical CO2 energy can be found at the Sandia website: energy/supercritical-co2/

Spinning Disc Reactor – Nanoparticle Production Profit Potential

Review of Article: 20171106-infinity-turbine-sdr-spinning-disc-reactor-nanoparticles-sdr


Spinning Disc Reactors, or SDRs, are a very new type of processing unit that has had new applications discovered every year. All the articles used in this report are under 10 years old, with the newest one being published this year. This demonstrates how new SDRs are, especially in this field. While there is no publicly available information on using SDRs to make quantum dots, I believe that it is possible and most likely is being optimized currently in the private market.

A big field of interest as of lately has been process intensification which is a design approach that focuses on smaller, cleaner, safer, and more energy efficient processes. One design that has received considerable attention as of late has been the spinning disc reactor (SDR). Its basic design includes one or more liquid streams being flowed onto a quickly rotating disc.

The centrifugal acceleration from the rotation creates a very thin liquid film which significantly heightens the mass transfer and micro-mixing ability of the liquid streams. It also allows for more process control due to additional variables in the process including RPMs of the disc, the texture on the disc, the disc temperature, the injection site along the disc, disc size, pressure in the reactor, and environment in the reactor (can include speciality gas injection into reactor space). It also is a continuous feed reactor which can be applied to many processes that have relied on large volume and high residence time designs like batch or continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR).


While the SDR can be used for many different processes, it excels greatly in a specific few. These include processes that rely on precipitation and uniformly mixed reactants. These traits allow for SDRs to be used in the “bottom-up” production of nanoparticles, where particles are created through nucleations and subsequently crystal growth. This is where batch reactors and CSTRs aren’t as easily applied due to their high volumes and lack of sufficient mixing ability. “Top-down” processing where bulk material is ground down into nanoparticles is typically avoided when trying to achieve nanoparticles of a certain size and narrow size distribution due to the lack of control over the process.

In 2010, the global market for quantum dots was low, sitting at $67 million [27]. It was projected to have an amazing 59.3% compound annual growth rate, which was mostly realized and by 2016 it has become a $610 million global market (with the estimated CAGR it was predicted to reach $670 million by 2015) [28]. The current growth rate is estimated at 41.3% now for 2016 to 2021, predicting the global market to reach $3.4 billion by 2021 [28].

Both silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles have a realized and open market to enter with predicted growth and new applications coming out consistently. The cost to produce the materials is rather low and the production ability seems high enough, especially with silver, that a company could actively pursue using an SDR to produce the nanoparticles with success. Since the proof of concept and idea is already detailed, there would be a low cost of entry into these markets as well. The revenue from such could be used to support R&D into quantum dots or pharmaceutical nanoparticles.



Infinity Turbine Introduces CO2 Turbine Generator That Fits In A Standard Filter Assembly

Infinity Turbine has developed a micro-sized CO2 Turbine Generator which fits inside a standard high pressure 1.5 liter filter assembly. The compact turbine generator can be used to utilized waste heat to energy, such has solar thermal, industrial waste heat, computer server waste heat, and other sources of heat at or above 30C (89F).

What is unique about this concept is that the waste heat can be used to generate power at the point of use. Now server farms (Amazon, Google, and GoDaddy) can use their low-grade (140F) waste heat to generate power. Green power (even in small amounts) on a small distributed grid, is better than powering a chiller to provide all the cooling of waste heat sources.


For more information, please visit Infinity Turbine website at:

What is a Spinning Disc Reactor ? Why is it important in Green Chemistry ?

Spinning Disc Reactor | Green Chemistry | Applications:  20171103-infinitysupercritical-spinning-disc-reactor-research

What is a Spinning Disc Reactor ? A SDR is a device which uses a spinning disc, typically in proximity of a stationary surface, to accelerate flow in a centrifugal manner. The components of which activates the flow (which is typically a liquid), to mix, agitate, shear, produce cavitation (vacuum), and produce temperature change, under the influence of boundary layer rotation. One of the main mechanisms at work here is called sonochemistry (producing ultrasonics by forming acoustical cavitation in liquids – which results in chemical activity). For example, when you cavitate water, you get a energy burst which includes UV light, heat, and sound. Also known as a shock wave.

Shock Waves and MicroJets:

A good example is cavitation in water. The spinning disc creates voids which collapse (and implode) that produces a shock wave. The resulting microjet produces thousands of psi of pressure.

The SDR is unique, in that it provides a multifunctional platform, which allows the processor to control the flow acceleration by RPM, and flow temperature by adding or subtracting heat from the unit. Co-solvents, or other compounds can be added to the flow.


Configuration of a Spinning Disc Reactor

Rotors and stators can be rapidly reconfigured to stage pumping, mixing, shearing, extraction, and also provide a platform for complex chemical reactions, such as the production of Quantum Dots (QD). Take multiple chemical components within a liquid, best shows the incredible flexibility of the spinning disc reactor. While the reactions can be very complex, the mechanism to produce those reactions is very basic, and can be done under 4,000 RPM. Best of all, since reactions are very localized, the device is not considered a pressure vessel.

Micromixing Efficiency of a Spinning Disk Reactor

“The use of the spinning disk technology enables one to produce particles continuously

with controllable mean sizes down to 27 nm, without the risk of fouling or blocking.”

Ultra-wetting graphene-based PES ultrafiltration membrane – A novel approach for successful oil-water separation

“More importantly, the water permeability increased by 43 percent with greater than 99 percent selectivity. Based on our findings, we believe that the development of PES-G- PANCMI membrane will open up a solution for successful oil-water separation.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/305486217_Ultra- wetting_graphene- based_PES_ultrafiltration_membrane_- _A_novel_approach_for_successful_oil- water_separation

Higee technologies and their applications to green intensified processing

“…technologies which involve the application of high gravity fields, typically in the order of 100-1000g, in order to intensify dynamics, mixing and heat mass transfer in processing fluids.. such as spinning disc reactor (SDR) and rotating packed beds (RPB)… and rotor- stator SDR (RSSDR) … and rotating zig-zag bed (RZB) for achieving green processing benefits.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/308404045_Higee_technologi es_and_their_applications_to_green_intensifi ed_processing

A Taylor Vortex Photocatalytic Reactor for Water Purification

Flow evolution in a spinning disc reactor can result in very high overall efficiency of photocatalytic conversion. Centrifugal instability results in pollutant degradation.

Coal yields production of graphene quantum dots at Rice University

“The Rice lab of chemist James Tour found simple methods to reduce three kinds of coal into graphene quantum dots (GQDs), microscopic discs of atom-thick graphene oxide that could be used in medical imaging as well as sensing, electronic and photovoltaic applications. ”

From coal comes 20 percent yield graphene quantum dots. Non-toxic and fluoresce.

Evaluation of a Spinning Disc Reactor for Continuous Processing
“As part of an evaluation of equipment aimed at process intensification, use of a continuously operating spinning disc reactor (SDR) was investigated. Results obtained for two organic reactions and one crystallization are discussed. The SDR was found to be a useful tool for revealing intrinsically fast kinetics as well as for optimizing a process with such kinetics. Control of particle size distribution was demonstrated with the crystallization investigated.”

Optimization of Biodiesel production in Spinning disc Reactor using Response Surface Methodology

“Spinning disc reactor have been fabricated and used for continuous alkali-catalyzed transesterification biodiesel production. The reactor was designed with a 110 mm diameter circular disc made of stainless steel as a static disc and another disc of same dimension made up of high density polyethylene to serve as rotating disc, enclosed on cylindrical vessel made of plexiglass.”

http://www.journalijar. com/article/5096/optimization-of-biodiesel- production-in-spinning-disc-reactor-using- response-surface-methodology/

CFD Numerical Simulation of Biodiesel Synthesis in a Spinning Disc Reactor

“In this paper a two-disc spinning disc reactor for intensified biodiesel synthesis is described and numerically simulated. The reactor consists of two flat discs, located coaxially and parallel to each other with a gap of 0.2 mm between the discs. The upper disc is located on a rotating shaft while the lower disc is stationary. The feed liquids, triglycerides (TG) and methanol are introduced coaxially along the centre line of rotating disc and stationary disc. .” element.-psjd-doi-10_1515_cpe-2015-0002

The use of spinning disc reactor for processing ice cream base – effect of ageing in making model ice cream

“The results reveal that the SDR is capable of producing a highly stable ice cream base that requires significantly less ageing than the 18 h typically associated with the traditional process of making ice cream. The SDR process provides intense mixing of ingredients which facilitates the hydration of milk proteins and stabilizers.”

http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.01934. x/full

Spinning Disc Reactors -A novel processing machine for the food and chemical industry

“Ability to very rapidly heat and cool fluids, especially viscous fluids; pasteurization, fine crystal formation. Very low delta T gives less thermal damage. Self-cleaning easy clean characteristic, enhanced mass transfer for evaporation and odor removal with less thermal damage. Effective use of UV radiation (sunshine treated!) Unique combination of shear and draw gives opportunities for structure manipulation”

http://www.flandersfood. com/sites/default/files/ct_bestand/10/10/21/5 %20FFTD%20Henderson%20.pdf

Concentration of Apple Juice Using Spinning Disc Reactor Technology

“The SDR-made reconstituted apple juices are comparable to both the original pure- pressed apple juice sample and the commercial reconstituted product… It can be concluded that this novel SDR technology is capable of producing apple juice concentrates efficiently without compromising the quality of the juice products. ” apple-juice-using-spinning-disc-reactor- technology-2157-7110.1000108.php? aid=1136

Shear Assisted Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite to Graphene

“Our findings on the crucial role of hydrodynamics in accentuating the exfoliation efficiency suggest a safer, greener, and more automated method for production of high quality graphene from graphite.”

Simple and Large-Scale Strategy to Prepare Flexible Graphene Tape Electrode

When the SDR is used to produce nanoparticles and graphite, the resulting powder can be used with various techniques to apply graphene to make printable electrodes. The technique is as simple as using acrylic transparent tape, and peeling away the tape from graphite foil.

Green Reactors

“The advantages and disadvantages and the and design parameters that need to be considered when selecting microreactors to achieve process intensification (PI) are discussed. Oscillatory flow mixing (OFM) reactor, which includes oscillation of fluids using an external oscillator, is characterized by plug-flow RTD, high heat transfer, and short reaction times.  A plate-type reactor combines the high-heat- transfer capabilities of plate heat exchangers with the mixing of microreactors into a single unit, and is designed such that reactants can be injected at different locations along the flow path. The spinning tube-in-a-tube (STT) reactor is capable of creating sub- Kolmogoroff and near-Kolmogoroff eddies, which can reduce reaction time. The spinning disc reactor (SDR) has a very small reactor holdup, such that very hazardous reactions can also be carried out.”

https://www.researchgate. net/publication/282297425_Green_reactors


The spinning disc reactor (SDR) is an amazing device that has a small footprint with large mixing and chemical reaction potential. The primary benefits of using a SDR are the small size, complex mixing, shear, and sonochemistry reactions which can be performed in a non pressurized device. Using a liquid medium, such as water, can produce shock waves (and resulting microjets) which provide thousands of pounds of pressure within a very small space, to carry out reactions.

Infinity Supercritical Introduces 1.5 L

Infinity Supercritical is pleased to announce the availability of a 1.5 L Supercritical CO2 Extraction System. The system has one extraction vessel, with 1,500 cc of volume (1.5 Liter), which is anywhere from 1/4 to 1/2 lb. of botanicals (depending on density of botanical). The system shares the same frame and many components as the 10L system, but has a reduced volume extraction and collection vessel. Introductory price is set at $29,000. The system features FlowBar for fast extractions (.5-3 hours), and TriboTube electrostatic collection system. The 2,000 psi closed-loop system is now available, and is built in about 2 weeks from time of order. The system is semi-automated, with set-it-and-forget-it pressure and temperature zones. The pressure and temperature will automatically maintain settings, once set. The system can be used for Cannabis, Hemp, Oregano, Lavender, Ginseng, Hops, and other botanical oil extracts. System is great for smaller runs, testing botanical oil content and active components, etc.